Information About Sifaiye Madrasah
The Sifaiye Madrasa (Keykavus Dârüşşifâsı, Dârü’s-sıhha) was built in 1217 by the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuk State Izzeddin Keykavus I as a darüşşifa in Sivas. The structure used as a madrasah in the Ottoman period.
It is one of the oldest hospitals in the world to date. The building, which is described as âr dârü’s-sıhha esinde in its inscription, is on Medreseler Street (former Tokat Street) in the city center, opposite the Çifte Minareli Medrese. With approximately 3400 square meters it is the largest of the Seljuk Turkey dârü'ş-healing. Brickwork, tiles, the abundance of inscriptions, ornaments and relief figures with many innovations and a copy of the foundation has reached the present day, the Anatolian Seljuk is an important position in health care institutions.
The southern evyan of the building is the tomb of Izzeddin Keykavus I. The most important part of Şifahane is the tomb facade covered with tile ornaments.
The building was built as the medical site of the era. Indigenous sources of Anatolian Seljuk history speak of Sivas Darussifa only because of the death of Izzeddin Keykavus and they content themselves with the fact that he was buried in his tomb built in Darussifa. The information about the hospital is based on the examination of the structure and the contents of the foundation.
The southern iwan of the four-iwan madrasah was separated from Izzeddin Keykavus, who had built the building, as a tomb, and the funeral of the Sultan who lost his life in tuberculosis was brought to death in 1220.
It is not known who the architect of Darussifa was. It is noted that Bedreddin Ali, one of the owners of neighboring immovables, is an architect in his foundation. This record suggests the possibility that Darussifa could be this architectural person.
It is not known how the cafeteria worked in the years after its establishment and which doctors were employed. It is thought that Ali, a Sivasian physician who lived in the 14th century and had a medical work, worked in Sivas Dârüssıhhası. Some researchers claim that there is a medical madrasah adjacent to the darüşşifa, but the excavation has shown that the structure consists only of darüşşifa. Therefore, the Sivas Keykavus Darüşşifa / medical madrasah-hospital function was carried out together.
Kösedağ defeat that caused great destruction in the city, the collapse of the Seljuk State of Anadou, after the death of Sivas Sultan Kadı Burhaneddin'ın Timur's invasion of Anatolia during the events such as the ruins of the healhouse, Sivas entered the Ottoman madrasah, the classical madrasah providing religious education. (Some sources indicate that it was converted to a madrasah by an edict issued in 1768). It was recorded that the number of students of the madrasah, which was educated with seven students in the 16th century, reached 500 in 1912-1913.
The building was used by the military during World War I as a warehouse for goods and supplies. Şifahane was restored in 1937 by the Turkish Historical Society.
The 750th Anniversary of Darusshiha was celebrated on 4 September 1967 with a simple ceremony in its courtyard. The General Directorate of PTT issued a commemorative stamp and an envelope on the first day.
The madrasah was repaired in 1939, 1962 and 2008 to 2011.
deed of trust
The Arabic foundation of 1 Muharram 615 (March 30, 1218), organized by Keykavus, is the oldest Seljuk foundation for the city, as it is the only example of the foundation that survived from the dervishes-healings built in Anatolia during the Seljuk period. In the foundation, especially the structures around the darüşşifa, the physical texture of the city, the identity of the trustee, the quality of the doctors and other persons in charge were given.
In the foundation, there are mentions of master, compassion, experienced, moral, charlatan-free ophthalmologists and surgeons who are assigned to Ferruh bin Abdullah as trustee and overseer. It is clearly stated that the trustee is very competent in the administration of the Darussifa, its officials, salaries paid to them, the income and distribution of the foundation. It is emphasized in the foundation that the conditions of the foundation should not change and that those who break or change the rules on this subject will be punished by Allah.
The foundation was approved by five different kadı. The reason for this may be that the original copy of the foundation was disappeared on the basis of the martyrdom of the witnesses.
Architectural features and decorations
The madrasah, which was built as a madrasah type with four iwans and an open courtyard, is made of a single-storey cut stone with a rectangular plan of 48 x 68 m. There are thirty rooms surrounded by porticoes. Stone, brick materials and tiles were used in the construction.
Importance was given to decorating the crown, window border and the main iwan surface. The two lion figures in the corners of the Taçkapı arch symbolize strength and health. The door is decorated with elegant motifs intertwined in the form of stars.
The corridor, which is passed after the gate, opens to the madrasah with a second door. It is presumed that the main iwan directly opposite the inner door is the practice section reserved for physicians. There are human face reliefs on both sides of the main arched iwan, which is directly opposite the entrance. On one side there is a relief of a woman's head with braided angles on two sides, on the other side a relief of a bearded male head with sun rays around it. The word-i monotheism is written around both figures, under the female relief, the surrogate camera is written and under the male relief the surrogate-shams are written.
The tomb of İzzeddin Keykâvus I is in the southern iwan. On the façade of the ten-square tomb, the richest glazed brick and mosaic-tile decorations of the Seljuk art are found. Behind the door there is a mihrab decorated with star mesh. Written around the Mihrab belt is a verse from the Qur'an Surah al-Tawba. The tiled cist in front of the mihrab belongs to Izzeddin Keykavus I. In addition to the Sultan's tomb, his wife, Selcuk Hatun and other members of the dynasty, there are twelve large and small cisterns. In the single-line Arabic celali sülüs tile inscription consisting of fourteen pieces of tile plates above the tomb façade, it is thought that Izzettin Keykavus was from his own mouth; "We have been brought from the large spaces of the palaces to the narrow sections of the tombs. Woe! Unfortunately, this death incident took place from the temporal world and emigrated to the Hereafter, which took place on the fourth day of the 61st year of Shawwal." This date does not indicate his death, but the date on which the inscription was written; because Izzeddin Keykavus died in early 1220.
Geomet Amel-i Ahmed bin Bedel al-Merendi. ”(The work of Ahmed the son of Merendli Ahmed) is written in the Arabic inscription on the geometric interlaced panel above the left window. It is believed that Ahmed, the son of Merendli Bedel, was the name of the artist who made the tomb tiles.
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