Information About Kastabala Hierapolis Ancient City
The ancient city of Kastabala in 1875 for the first time the British diplomat E.J. Davis has visited and described in detail. Hierapolis is another name in the ancient era of the city, but in 1890, the British researcher Th. It was understood by Bent by the ancient inscriptions found here. 20 th century about the monuments, inscriptions and coins of Kastabalan of travelers and researchers of various nations. Thanks to their researches, it is possible to illuminate some points of the ancient city history in the dark. The ancient writers Ptolemaeus and Plinius mentioned the ancient cities of the plains of Cilicia before the cities of Anazarbos, and the Epiphanei. Strabo, a geographer, has fallen into the delusion of a second Kastabala on the Taurus mountains. The oldest written document of the name Kastabala, a name derived from Anatolian languages, is 20 km. north of the Bahadirli village, located in the north of 1961, is a border inscription in Aramaic. B.C. 5th and 4th century. In this text, which is the official writing used by the Persians who dominated Anatolia, it is stated that part of the land of the goddess Kubaban, which carries the name Pirvaşua, belongs to Kastabalaa. It is not clear if it is meant to refer to a city or land as Kastabala. Kastabala for the first time Seleucid kings IV. Antiochos Epiphanesin domination (175-164 BC) coins are called Hierapolis. Antiochos named the city "Holy City" because of the temple of the goddess named "Perasia" who has long been worshiped in the city. The name Perasia is probably derived from the name of Pirvashua, which dates back to the late Hittite period, as mentioned in the Arami inscription mentioned above. The Amasya historical geography writer Strabo Perasia, who lived in the Roman period, speaks to the goddess of an interesting tradition observed during the worship ceremonies. According to Strabo, the nuns of the goddess were marching through the angry coals, which had been bruised with her bare feet during religious ceremonies. These ceremonies are still being held among some community groups in India, the Pacific islands, Central Italy and Thrace. The depictions of Perasia on the coins of Kastabala and the votive inscriptions presented to Perasi in Kastabalada document that the cult center of this goddess is in Kastabalada.
Perasia is honored with the title of the inscription that we have learned from coins that the most important atribus is torch. According to Strabo, Perosia was identified with Artemis in Kastabalada. The most striking example of the synkretimus phenomenon seen in many parts of Anatolia is the identification of the Artemisin roots, which we know from the ancient Greek gods world, with a local Anatolian goddess, Persia, which dates back to the Hittite period. The inscription of the goddesses Perasiaya, Selene, Demeter, Artemis, Aphrodite and Hekate, which were found in Kastabal and dated to the beginning of the Roman imperial period, documented that the world of eastern and western religions and gods merged with each other in the Roman imperial period in Kastabalada. It was under the rule of the Seleucid empire. IV. YY. The end of the BC I. century. There is no significant information about the location between the middle of the ancient sources. B.C. I. century. In the midst of the Seleucids, Hierapolis-Kastabalan was once again on the stage of history when the Roman state was dominated by the Seleucids. It is known that BC. In 67, the famous Roman commander Cn. A new era has begun in the history of the region with the resettlement of the Cilician pirates who had been defeated by Pompeius Magnus on the sea and on land. It was seen that the Romans left the control of the Ceyhan river basin in the ancient era in order to prevent the power vacuum in the region to an ancient pirate leader named Tarkondimotos. Hierapolis-Kastabala was the capital of the region at that time.
The first time since Tarkondimotostan BC. Although Cicero was mentioned as the friend and ally of the Romans in 51 BC, it was described as BC. Since the winter of 64, it is thought that the eastern part of the Cilicia is under the control of the plains. Stratoya, whom he learned from an inscription in 1914 in Kastabalada, is thought to be the founder of the local dynasty known as Tarkondimotus because he was not mentioned in the ancient sources nor in the inscriptions and coins until now. It is understood that the Tarkondimotus, whose exact year of birth is unknown, is the ruler of this place by providing control over the tribal leaders at the head of some local communities in the eastern part of the plains of Cilicia. It was one of the reasons why it was recognized by the Romans as the leader of the region. B.C. In the winter of 64, Pompeius's legacy, Afranius, was supported by the Arab tribes that Lucullus had placed in the mountains of Amanos. It was enough for the Romans to believe in the loyalty of the Tarkondimotus in 51, when Ciceron reported in a timely fashion that the Parthids had piled up to invade Cilicia. Because the control of East Cilicia and the Amanos region, which were the key between Anatolia and Mesopotamia, was of great strategic importance for the Romans. They needed a local power that they could trust in the region. Although Tarkondimotos was previously a pirate, he was now very helpful in the service of the Romans because he knew both the land and the coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean and Cilicia. Tarkondimotosun to take the title of the king Ciceron's governor of the province of Cilicia about 10 years after the end of the task would take place. Already Cicero mentions Tarkondimitostan only as a friend and ally of the Romans, but does not mention that it is the title of king. We learn from Cassius Diod that the Tarkondimotus was the greatest assistant to Pompeius in the struggle between Pompeius and Lulius Caesar and was his greatest help in preparing his fleet.
Pompeius, by Caesar BC After being defeated in the Pharsalon war in 48 and killed in Egypt, he tried to gain the trust of Caesar and save his position by luring the impression that Pompeius would remain loyal to his followers, trapping them and surrendering to Caesara. It is also suggested by some researchers that he named his daughter Lulia to show loyalty to Lulius Caesara. After the murder of Mares Antonius and Octavian in the battle between Caesar killers and Marcus Antonius on the 15th of March 44, Cassius Dio writes that the pre-Philippe Tarkondimotus had refused to provide military support to Cassius but that Brutus had to take his seat due to his use of force. B.C. In 42, Philippi was left under the control of the Eastern Mediterranean and consequently Cilicia Antony as a result of the Trumvirat's sharing of Roman dominance after the defeat of the Caesar killers in the war. Antonius, as in many parts of the Eastern Mediterranean under his control, in the middle and east of Anatolia, instead of the big and powerful kings, at the beginning of the local leaders or priests can rely on the Roman headed by the principality to control the region preferred policy. In accordance with this policy, Tarkondimotos, who held the plains of Cilicia, was able to persuade Antony that he was forced to stand beside Caesar killers who were enemies of Antony. He became Antonia's ally in the year 40, and Antonius Tarkondimotosa gave permission to lead the land he owned. In this period, Tarkondimotos had made excellent service to Rome and he had to show his loyalty very clearly during the wars with the Parthia, especially by Antony and he was given the title of king by Antonius. BC We learned from the coins of Tarkondimotos'nın began to use the title of Philantonius BC. It coincides with this period between 40 and 36 years. But despite all his loyalty, Tarkondimotos had to accept that the central Cilicia coast, including Elaiussa and Koryko, which he had retained until then, was presented as a gift to the Kleopasta by Antonius.
Antonius had his side in the battle of Antony as the sole ruler of the novel he did with Octavian. But BC. He died at the head of the naval troops he commanded during a clash with Agrippan's ships at sea on the eve of the Actium battle of 31, when Antony lost.
In the light of the information presented so far, Tarkondimotosun sees the timelessness of the power gap, as in the other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean, after the collapse of the Seleucids empire. it is understood that he never hesitates. The loyalty of the Tarkondimotos to Pomprius, Cicero and Caesara reached its peak with Antony's adherence to Philiponius. In this case, the usual was the replacement of Philantonius by the title of Philoromaios. Tarkondimotos thus shows that he favored good relations between the heads of states belonging to kingdoms of the east. But Tarkondimotosun BC. We see that the most important element that marked the 33 years of management between 64 and 31 was the swing policy that he had to implement or implement even though he tried to become a loyal ally of the Romans. BC BC Cilician Seleucid Empire from the area of dominance of the Roman Empire to the area of dominance in the period of BC. In this most complicated period of the first century, between Anatolia and Syria, it could not have been expected to follow a policy other than Tarkondimotostan in order not to disappear among the Parths and the Romans, who at that time had been brutally hostile to each other for claiming to be two great world powers. But the remarkable point here is that the Romans, of whom the Tarkondimotos offered their loyalty, were always overpowered or killed by their rivals. Moreover, Tarkondimotos did not abandon the Romans who showed his loyalty in their first failures, supported them until their death and eventually lost their lives due to his devotion to Antony.
Tarkondimotosun son of life Tarkondimotos Philopator, immediately after the Actium to indicate that the side of Octavian to pass and to prove it Antony supporters gladiators Cyzicostan Alexadreiaya walks in Cilicia, but the winner of the battle after the Battle of Octavian Tostondimotosun son of Tarkondimotos Philopator, and his father's control of the area under the control of his father's control for years. But when he believed that there would be no attack on the Parthans in the east, In 20, Tarkondimotos's son Tarkondimotosa II. Tarkondimotos, under the name of Philopator, gave him the right to reinstate the land he held in 31 years just before his death. II. Tarkondimotos Philopator's loyalty to the Romans in a decade must have played a very active role in the show. However, Augustos, the king of Kappadocia, gave Archelaos the central Cilician coastline, where Antony had taken from his father and gave it to the Kleopatrine. Thus, II. The region in the hands of the Tarkondimotos had been reduced to the position of a local kingdom, which was not only of great importance between the Romans and the Parthites, who remained in the inner region of the plain Cilicia. B.C. In 19 Octavian visited the Cilician Pad to be the ruler of the new world order, and during that visit he re-established it as Anazarbosa Kaisareia. Thus, next to the capital of Tarkondimotos dynasty, Kastabalan began to form a second center in the region. This situation started the process of being a city which was predominantly religious in the east of Çukurova, and a political metropolis of Anazarbos.
The information given by ancient sources and inscriptions about the Tarkondimotos dynasty is very limited. The name of the wife of the Tarkonodimotos is unknown. Since we learned from another honor inscription found in 1914 in Kastabalada, the oldest son of Tarkondimotos was named Laios. It is understood that Laios may have been dead before the Battle of Actium because of its lack of name in ancient sources and coins. We learn from the same inscription that Tarkondimotus had a daughter, Lulia. II. Tarkondimotos Philopator honoring the inscription on a statue base in Anazarbosta strengthens the possibility of Anazarbos in the area under the control of Tarkondimotos. Anazarbosta was found during the excavation of a water canal in the south of the city in 1984. Tarkondimotos Philopator may belong to the Ramazan OZGAN as a strong possibility. During the visit by Octavian in 19 or immediately after this visit II. Tarkondimotos must have been planted to celebrate the approval of Philopator by King Augustos.
II. The later fate of the dynasty and the death of Tarkondimotos is unknown. Only Tacitus, M.S. In 17, he mentions that a Cilician noble died under the name Philopator. Tarkondimotos Philopator's M.S. After his death in 17, the lands under his administration, as indicated by Tacitus, in line with the desire of the local people, were included in the state of Syria by Germanicus during the time of Tiberius. A.D. Caligula, 38, separates the territory of Tarkondimotos from the Syrian province and grew up together with his childhood friend Commagene IV in Rome. Antiochosa. IV. Antiochos M.S. He kept under control at short intervals until 72. Emperor Vespasian M.S. This region has been incorporated into the borders of Cilicia, which was rebuilt since 72th century. Until the year 260, the Roman Empire was in operation.
There is no precise information about the width of the region under the supervision of Tarkondimotos. However, honoring Toparch as an inscription found in Hierapolis-Kastabalada in the capital suggests that the region under the control of Tarkondimotus could be a continuation of one of the Toparchians from the local government units in the Seleucid period. The management organization of the Tarkondimotos was inspired by the Hellenistic period kingdoms. In another inscription found in Kastabalada, the city's biggest officer, commander and commander of the city's land and the commander of the royal troops, stated that Kastabalan was an independent city but under the control of royal institutions. We learn that they are separate administrative units from the same inscription and that these are managed by a single high officer, who can compare with the prime minister today, just like in the Hellenistic kingdoms.
Mopsuhestia, one of the most important ancient cities on Pyramos, is thought to be located in the area controlled by Mallos, one of the oldest cities in Cilicia, Magasos, and the largest port of Cilicia in the east of it and the ancient city of Epiphaneia in the east. Ciceron's military operations in Amanos, during the ancient city of Epiphaneia near the establishment of the headquarters of the region is believed to be reliable for the Romans. The comments, based on Cassius Dio, Lucan and Strabo, that the Tarkondimotus keeps the entire shoreline up to Elaiussa-Sebaste and Korykosa, has not yet been supported by other documents. In the west, the terrain, which probably stretched from Anazarbos and west of Sarosa, was under the control of Tarkondimotos.
In the east, it is highly likely that the area where the Taurus and Amanos mountain ranges meet is under the control of Tarkondimotos. The area of Tarkodimotos can be documented through an epigraphic finds that we have discovered during the examinations we conducted in this region, where at least the northern part of the Taurus Mountains surrounding the plain could be spread to the southern slopes. This epigraphic find is an honorary inscription which can be used as a medieval structure in the north east of Kozan district on the Uzunoğlan Hill near the temple. The inscription is honored by the king Tarkondimotos Philopator.
As a result of the information given by the inscriptions mentioned here briefly, Tarkondimotos and his son II. It is understood that the Tarkondimotos Philopator managed the Pyramos basin, which includes the ancient cities of Kastabala and Anazarbos, in the eastern and northeastern part of Çukurov for approximately 80 years.
The uncertainty and the social and economic hardships of the region during the last years of the Seleucid empire and the Tarkondimotos dynasty ended when Çukurova and Hierapolis-Kastabalan became the rulers of the Roman Empire. The large structure activity in the region also shows this. In the following centuries they visited the Roman Emperors Traian, Hadrian and Caracalla, and during these visits they were honored by the people of the city. A.D. As the unrest in the eastern border of the Roman Empire increased in the 3rd century, a large number of Roman troops from the region passed eastward. The city was also known as Hierapolis-Kastabala or Hierapolis on the edge of Pyramos during the reign of Valerian. A.D. In 260 BC was conquered by the Sassanid king I. Hapur. The fame of Kastabalian acrobats in the early Byzantine period
is known to be released. The city, which was conquered by Isaurian Balbinos, who rebelled against the Byzantine Empire in 380, was founded in the 5th century. Established early in the province of Cilicia was connected to the Anazarbosa, which is the capital of the province of Secunda. Kent 431'de adhering to the council called Hesychius, 451 in Kadikoy with the representative Paregorios attended. In 524, about 30 km. Anazarbosta north-west of the earthquake leading to the destruction of Kastabala is also certain to have affected. After this earthquake that took place during the reign of Emperor Justin, in the year of the Emperor Justinian, a second great earthquake destroyed the cities in Çukurova and the plague epidemic that began immediately after the earthquake spread from Çukurova to the Amik plain and caused great loss of life in all cities and rural areas including Antakya. . Kastabala lost its importance in the middle and late Byzantine times, after the destruction of the Crusades could not recover itself again and after a short time it was completely abandoned.
The ruins seen at the site of the Kastabala ruins are entirely from the Roman period. As in the other Çukurova cities in Kastabalada M.S. 2nd century end and 3rd century. Roman legions who were referred to the eastern front due to the increasing eastern expeditions led to economic and social problems. In order to enable cities to cope with these problems, the emperors have engaged in extensive development activities in the plains of Cilicia and they have recognized the privilege of organizing many games mentioned in their name. Especially the products of zoning policy implemented by Septimius Severus and later from the God of the Severus dynasty can still be observed in the remains of the Hierapolis-Kastabalan.
The most important one of the ancient building remains of Kastabalan, which survived to our day, is undoubtedly the colonnaded street. Approximately 300 m from the asphalt road connecting the Kastabal to Karatepe-Aslantaş. a section of the colonnaded street. It crosses the street on which the fortress is located, and descends to the valley which forms the main settlement area and stretches in the east-west direction.
City center; it is bordered by a door that is thought to be located where the street with a colonnaded street starts. The hills surrounding the valley where the city was established in the south, in the east and the north, were limiting the city center. The colonnaded street in the middle of the city center is elevated in accordance with the slope of the land from west to east and reaches a monumental gate which is thought to be Propylon by passing through the north of the region where there are several vaults. The marble architectural pieces belonging to a large structure in the southwest of these door ruins give the impression that these vaults are the infrastructure of a large building. During a visit to Kastambola in 1890 Th. Bnet found the findings in a much better condition than today and suggested this place as the place of the temple of Artemis Perasia, which has not been determined so far. It is understood that there was a Roman period building in the Roman imperial period architectural fragments which were used as spolia in the northern church, just to the west of this area. After passing through the propylon, it reaches to a street terrace with columns facing east. Due to the votive inscriptions on the terrace, some researchers suggest that the temple of Artemis Perasia, the main goddess of the city, should be sought here. Right below this terrace lies the city's Stadion in the east-west direction. The eastern end of this stadium is limited by a retaining wall and the city has a theater at the western end. In the south of the theater bath remains can be seen. Stadion, theater and baths were very close to each other and this area was the center of daily life of the city. The Stadion, where religious rituals associated with the cult of Artemis Perasia and the various games of the neighboring cities, were played, should have been directly connected with the sanctuary of Artemis Perasia.
The column series of column bodies seen in the southwestern part of the city are defined by some researchers as agora and others by a second columned street. There are many tombs and rock tombs in the south, north and west of the city. A rock incision was opened on the northern slope of the fortress in order to provide ease of transportation and to facilitate the defense of the fortress. In addition, M.S. Two churches dated to the first half of the 6th century attract attention. They were built next to the colonnaded street in the north, and the architectural fragments were removed from the Roman imperial period. O. Feld examines both churches in detail and dates them to the first half of the 6th century. In the churches, the architectural features of the churches built in Syria during the early Byzantine period can be seen.
The water supply of the city was brought from the source near the village of Karagedik on the eastern side of the Ceyhan River, and the water was brought from the Ceyhan valley to the city by transporting the pressurized water on the water reservoirs built on the Ceyhan River in the vicinity of the Nergis neighborhood.
The inscriptions and coins found in Kastabal are documented in the city that Artemis Perasian, as well as goddesses such as Asclepius and Hygieia, Helios, Theos Pyretos, have been worshiped. In addition, the inscribed round altars, erected for the surviving emperors, document the existence of the Roman emperor cult in Kastabalada. The inscriptions in the inscriptions found in Kastabalada Caracalla, III. In addition to Gordian, Marcus Aurelius' wife Faustinada is honored as Nea Hera.
Kastabala today is an archaeological and natural park with the remains of all the building described above
may have characteristics. In 1994, a few meters wide water channel which was intended to destroy the southern church and the colonnaded street through the ancient city was discovered during the destruction of the southern border of the city. tried to be kept.
The important historical and archaeological monuments of the ruins of Kastabala are carefully protected from all kinds of destruction and made easy to navigate by means of guiding and explanatory plates. historical places to visit.
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