Information About Grand Mosque of Bursa
Bursa Ulu Mosque is a religious building built by Bayezid I between 1396-1400 in Bursa.
The mosque, which is one of the historical symbols of Bursa, is located on Atatürk Avenue in the city center of Bursa. It is considered to be the most classic and monumental example of the multi-legged mosque scheme. Twenty-domed building, the interior is the largest mosque in Turkey congregation place. The architect is thought to be Ali Neccar or Hacı İvaz. The pulpit of the mosque is a valuable work of art that is considered as one of the most important examples of the transition from Seljuk carving art to Ottoman wood carving.
192 calligraphy plates and graffiti written by different calligraphers in the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century are among the original examples of calligraphy.
Inside the mosque, the fountain, which is located under an open dome, is one of the remarkable features of the Ulu Mosque.
Bursa Ulu Mosque was built by the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I on his return from the campaign to Nigbolu. There is no inscription on the construction date of the mosque; but the 802 (1399) historic mosque at the pulpit door is considered the construction date of the mosque.
Bursa Grand Mosque; both as a continuation of the state's attempt to accept itself as a political, economic and cultural entity to the world, and the necessity of an effort to give identity to Ottoman society. It is rumored that the first sermon of the mosque was read by Somuncu Baba, one of the important sufis of the period.
The mosque was regarded as highly respected by the society during its construction and it was an honor to teach the other madrasahs. In the following centuries, the large-scale inscriptions adorning the interior of the mosque have been one of the reasons of social interest and reputation.
Shortly after the construction of Yildirim Bayezid's capture during the Ankara War, Timur's invasion of Bursa and Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey's Bursa siege during the Fetret Period (1413), the mosque was tried to be burned by stacking wood. As a result of these fires, the siding was destroyed. The resulting rubble wall texture was laid with thick plaster; this continued until the restoration of the 1950s. After the burning of the northern courtyard in the Great Bazaar fire in 1958, the plaster was removed during the renovation.
The first repair document of the mosque, which was opened to worship in 1421 after the transfer of the fetus, belongs to 1494. Until 1862, there were 23 other repair documents. Müezzin was built in 1549. In 1517, Sultan Selim Yavuz, the conquest of Egypt and the caliphate passed to the Ottomans during the period brought to the door of the Kaaba-i sheriff Ulu Mosque was presented as a gift by the sultan and hung to the left of the pulpit. The stone preacher chair opposite the muezzin mahfil was built in 1815.
The mosque was heavily damaged in the 1855 earthquake. Only the dome at the bottom of the western minaret and the dome in front of the mihrab survived. After the earthquake, he saw a major repair. During this period, the famous calligraphers sent from Istanbul with the order of Sultan Abdulmecid revised the great writings in the mosque. New lines were also added.
In a fire in 1889, the wooden cones of the minarets were burnt and then rebuilt as masonry.
The rectangular planned mosque measures approximately 5000 square meters and is covered with 20 domes. Domes sitting on octagonal pulleys are arranged in five rows perpendicular to the mihrab wall. The pulleys are arranged lower in each row as they move sideways, the ones on the axis of the mihrab being the highest.
In order to ease the massive effect of the thick body walls, which were built with smooth cut stones, deaf pointed arches were made on the facades to align each row of domes. Inside each arch there are two windows in two rows. Their shapes and sizes are different on every front.
There are two minarets in the corners on the north façade of the building, which has no last congregation place. Neither of the minarets sit on the body wall, but starts from the ground. The minaret in the western corner was built by Bayezid I. Its octagonal rostrum is completely made of marble and its body is made of bricks. The square minaret in the eastern corner, which is said to have been built by Mehmet I, is also about 1 meter apart from the body wall of the mosque. The balconies are the same in both minarets and are adorned with bricked muqarnas. When the lead-coated cones disappeared in the fire in 1889, today's knuckled stone cones were made.
The mosque, whose main gate is in the north, has three gates with the ones in the east and west. In addition, a door opened to Hünkar Mahfili, which was later reserved for the prayer of the Sultan, was broken from the window; thus, the number of doors increased to four.
The pulpit of Bursa Ulu Mosque, which was made of hard walnut with the technique of kündekari, was built by an artist named Mehmed the son of Hacı Abdülaziz. There is not enough information about who is the master of the pulpit, which is one of the most important examples of the transition from Seljuk carving to Ottoman wood carving. The master's name is written on the right side of the pulpit with carved thuluth writing. The last word of the expression that he wrote his name was read in different ways, and in some sources it was found that Antepli; in some sources it is stated that Tabriz is from Devak village.
In the pulpit, the Seljuk tradition is dominant. At the entrance of the four-step pulpit, there are door wings. The triangular pulpit is adorned with vegetable in the perforation technique. The crown with the Rumis coming from the sides of the triangles has a wavy form. The sub-mirror is divided into 12 panels. In the side mirrors, the surface is divided into geometrical parts by multi-branched stars and the interior of each piece is filled with floral motifs. The pulpit railing is different in both directions. To the east, the geometric composition consisting of eight-pointed star and octagons in the perforation technique is placed on the railing set. In the other direction, boards carved and perforated in the ground are used alternately. The inscription on the door of the pulpit includes the construction date and the name of the building.
Some mysteries are attributed to the pulpit of Ulu Mosque. In 1980, the east side of the pulpit symbolized the geometric composition of the sun and the planets around it; the distances between them are proportional to the actual extensions; and the western composition is claimed to represent the galaxy system.
Inside the mosque, the fountain, which is located under the open dome in the middle of the twenty-domed structure, is one of the remarkable features of the Ulu Mosque. This feature, which is a continuation of the tradition of the hill span and the presence of a pool beneath the Seljuk structures, connects the mosque to the Seljuk tradition. The open dome, which is located under the fountain, is now closed with glass.
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