Information About Valens (Bozdoğan) Aqueduct
Bozdoğan Kemer, or Valens Aqueduct, with its original name of the well-known and accepted legacy of the whole world, is the aqueduct made by the Romans in Istanbul. It was completed by the Roman Emperor Valens in the late 4th century. The aqueduct restored by the Ottoman Sultans at different periods is one of the important historical monuments of the city. The most important of the aqueducts that meet the water requirement of the city is Orta Çağ.
The aqueduct is the largest of similar systems made in antiquity - this system extends from the slopes of the hills between the Kağıthane and the Marmara Sea, extending from the hilly regions of Thrace to the headquarters of the aqueducts, with a total length of 250 km. is at the last point. This water, which came to the city at that time, was stored in more than one hundred underground cisterns such as three open and Yerebatan Cisterns with a total capacity of more than 1 million cubic meters.
The construction of the aqueduct was initiated between the years 306 and 337, when kayser I Constantine ruled, and completed by kayser Valens in 378. The name of Valens aqueduct comes from himself. The aqueduct extends to the third hill where the Kapitolium is located (where Istanbul University is today) and the fourth hill where the Havariyun Church is located (where the Fatih Mosque was built instead of demolished today).  According to Sylent, the aqueduct built using the stones of the wall of the Caledonian wall during the Procopius revolt was put into service by the governor Klearchos in 373, at the Theodosius Forum, dedicated to the Nemflé, the water nymph in Greek mythology.
After a severe drought in 382 AD, he built a new aqueduct (Theodosius Aqueduct) carrying city water from the Belgrade Forests by I. Theodosius. II. During the period of Theodosius, the Valens aqueduct was distributed to Zeuksippos Baths and the Imperial Palace. The aqueduct, restored by the Roman Emperor Justinian I, who completed his connections with the Yerebatan and Binbirdirek Cisterns, probably after being damaged in an earthquake, was the last one to have built a second aqueduct. It was repaired by Justinus in 576.
During the siege of Avar in 626, part of the part of the wall was destroyed and the water conduction was interrupted, but in the time of the great drought of 758, water could be transmitted again by restoring the places destroyed by V. Constantine. The emperor repaired Patrikios through the workers who had brought the city's entire water reserve system from Anatolia and Greece.
Other maintenance activities of the aqueduct II. Basileios (at 1019) and III. It was the last Byzantine Emperor I Andronikos who deals with the arches. Neither during the period of the Latin Empire nor during the Palaiologus dynasty, the aqueduct, which has not survived any care, lost its former importance on the decrease of 40-50 thousand of the population of the city. Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, a Castean mischief, reported that during his visit to Timur in 1403 on his way to Istanbul in 1403, the aqueduct was still actively used at that time.
After the conquest of Istanbul (1453), Fatih Sultan Mehmet's entire reserve system, which will supply water to the Old Palace and then Topkapı Palace, was restored and merged with a new line drawn from the north. In the Great Istanbul Earthquake that took place in 1509, the damaged part of the aqueduct near the Şehzade Mosque was reconstructed after a short time. Since there was no proper restoration, this event later led to allegations that the aqueduct was shortened because it blocked the appearance of the glass. II. A new line has been added to the water reserve system, which was repaired during the Bayezid period. In the mid-16th century, the 47-51st aqueducts alongside the Şehzade Mosque in the reign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent were restored in gothic style, and in the same period Mimar Sinan continued to use it by connecting it to the aqueduct coming from the Belgrad Forests. With the increasing amount of water, the water was transported to the Kırkçeşme region on the shores of the Golden Horn and many fountains were built in this area.
II. During Mustafa time 41-45th aqueducts were restored according to their originals. It is found in an article dated 1696/1697 that this incident has been lost. II.Mustafa's successor III. During the Ahmet era, the city's water reserve system was rebuilt. In 1912, a section of 50 m was collapsed on the side of Fatih Mosque. Ayni was built a distribution center on the eastern end of the aqueducts.
The Bozdoğan Aqua belt, which is 63 meters above sea level, has a length of 971 meters, a height of 29 meters and a slope of 1: 1000. 1 - 40th, 46 - 51st aqueducts were completed during the reign of Emperor Valens. Mustafa and 52-56 belts were added during the reigns of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. The 18th - 73rd arches are double and the others are single storeys.
The foundation of Bozdoğan Kemeri is about 5.4 - 6.0 m. . Furthermore, as a result of the new geophysical measurements, it has been proven that Bozdoğan Kemeri's Atatürk Boulevard has about 40 m.
The original structure of the arches extending in a straight path was twisted due to unknown reasons during the construction of the Fatih Mosque. Cutting stones and bricks were used in the structure which does not have a regular masonry. The upper floors of the building where smooth square blocks are used on the first floor are formed by interlocking the 4th - 7th stone with cement and iron balances. The width of the arches varies between 7.75 meters and 8.24 meters. The thickness of the columns is 3.70 meters and the curves are 4 meters wide.
The waters coming from the north-east and north-east were merging in the vicinity of Edirnekapı. At the eastern end of the aqueducts there is a distribution facility and stretches as far as Hagia Sophia, feeding the Imperial Palace. In the 1950s the daily water flow in the arch was 6,120 meters and in the Byzantine period the two roads that were considered important for the city were intersecting in the eastern part of the arches.
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