Information About Hierapolis Ancient City
Hierapolis is an ancient city near Pamukkale (Denizli).
It is suggested that Hierapolis was a Phrygian city with its proximity to the cities of Laodiceia and Tripolis, which are the borders of the Carian region, and the ancient geographer Strabon and Ptolemy. Although information on the establishment of the city is limited; In the time of the Kingdom of Pergamon II. It is known that it was founded by Eumenes at the beginning of the 2nd century BC and was named Hierapolis because of Hiera, the queen of the Amazons, the wife of Telephos, the legendary founder of Bergama. Hierapolis, Hellenistic until the great earthquake in 60 BC during the reign of the Roman Emperor, Hellenistic continued to remain unique to the principles of urbanization. The city, which is located on an earthquake zone, has suffered a great deal of damage from the Neron period earthquake and has been completely renovated. After all these earthquakes, the city has lost its Hellenistic character and has taken the appearance of a typical Roman city. After the Roman period, Hierapolis became a very important center in the Byzantine period. This importance stems from the fact that Christianity was the center of Christianity from the 4th century AD (metropolis). Hierapolis, which passed into Byzantine rule in 395 AD, became the center of Episcopacy. At the end of the 12th century, Hierapolis remained within the boundaries of the Anatolian Seljuks. In the ancient city of Hierapolis; Necropolis, Domitiyan road and gate, Oktokonus temple, theater, Frontinus street and gate, Agora, Northern Byzantine Gate, South Byzantine Gate, Gymnasium, Triton Fountain Building, Apollon Sanctuary, Water Channels and Nympheums, Surlan, Filipus Martynonu and the bridge, the Direkli Church, the Necropolis, the Cathedral and the Roman Bath ruins.
Pamukkale, which is also used for treatment purposes, has attracted tourists throughout the history thanks to groundwater (travertines). The bath was built out of the city to allow the passengers to wash and enter the city.
Because the theater capacity is 9,500 people, it is estimated that the city population is between 95,000 and 100,000. It is understood from the design of the theater that there were gladiator fights. There is a difference in height of about one meter between the pit and the rows of seats beneath the stage to protect the viewers from wild animals.
There is no difference in the theaters where there are no gladiator fights, and the rows start at the stage level. The Medusa figure, which was processed at the entrance gate of the city, was built to protect the goddess Medusa. It is believed that this belief passed to Turkish culture as evil eye bead. On 09.12.1988, the city was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List both in nature and cultural heritage.
The Greek Theater is a large building that can be preserved with its entire façade of 300 foot (91 m) leaning on a slope. To build; After a major earthquake in 60, Flavius began in 62. It is under construction in the period of Hadrian (117-137). The building was completed in 206 years.
There are 50 seats in the cave. These seats are divided into 7 sections with 8 steps. Diozoma, which passes through the middle of the cavea, is entered on both sides by a vaulted passage (vomitorium). There are 5 doors and six niches on the front wall of the 6 foot (3.66 m) high wall surrounding the kingdom lodge and orchestra in the middle of the cavea and there are 10 columns in front of them. Marble columns are decorated with motifs of oyster shell. Behind the scene, the rear wall adorns the three rows of columns arranged on top of each other, and the bottom rises above the octagonal pedestals and is chamfered
The reliefs were made by different masters in different periods as it is understood from their styles. It is possible to see the effects of Hellenistic sculpture arts in the crowded, moving and lively figures especially in the scenes where mythological subjects are processed. In these figures, some influences of the Pergamon Art School (Reliefs of Zeus Horses) can be seen. In terms of embellishing the stage building with embossed friezes, the theater is very similar to Perge, Side and Nyssa theaters.
The necropolises expressing the cemetery areas were of special importance after Hierapolis was named the ‘Holy City Mez. Research in these necropolises brings to light all religious beliefs of the period. According to the splendor of the tomb structures, these necropolises, which can be easily separated as a wealthy or folk tomb, extend in the north and south direction of the main street of the city. The number is more than 2 thousand.
There are necropolis areas outside the city walls and in all directions except the plain. They are located on both sides of the north road leading to Tripolis-Sardes and the southern road leading to Laodicea-Clossae. Limestone and marble were used in the graves. The use of marble is more common in sarcophagus types.
Northern Necropolis: The presence of the monuments in the necropolis and the presence of a large number of travertine sarcophagi in a wide area where they are spread form an impressive view. (The number is more than two thousand and the inscription in the majority is encountered with the Greek Soros Sufiksi.)
The architecture of the Hierapolis burial monuments is very diverse and shows different applications. The earliest tombs are the tumulus tombs dating back to the Hellenistic Period (II - I. centuries BC). These tombs are covered with soil which is cone shaped above the burial chamber, which is bounded by roller pulley which is knitted with smooth cut stones. The grave chamber is reached by the corridor called dramos. The tumuli are located along the road and on the eastbound slope.
These graves belong to more elite families, while the poor families are simple tombs carved into the rock. Located in the northern part of the city, I., mostly II. and III. Other funerary monuments dating back to the 16th century, generally surrounded by walls, have trees (mostly cypresses) and gardens decorated with flowers. The grave monuments, which are completely made of travertine, show different types. They have a simple sarcophagus, which sometimes includes dead beds, with triangular pediment or base, with one or more sarcophagi, sometimes with more developed forms reflecting house models. The inscription on the base carrying the sarcophagus contains the Greek word bomos (footrest, altar): It has a symbolic meaning that glorifies the memory of the dead in connection with the high standing body. These monuments have the same function as heroon. (The grave monuments built to celebrate the goddesses of the heroes or the people of history after their death.)
South Necropolis: The right-hand side shows impressive traces of the earthquake. The wide travertine plain was completely upset. The simple and perhaps oldest necropolis's quadrangular pit graves and stone quarries are noteworthy. During the excavations, the experts of Denizli Museum found a grave structure with a long inscribed boom. A tumulus grave dating to the Young Hellenistic Period was found near it, and the inscribed marble steles were found. Excavations in the northern part of the area continue, and on the hillside there are figurative marble sarcophagi in the tombs of the Byzantine city walls. These sarcophagi stand on a stone pedestal. Adobe bricks are covered with roof tiles that have been raised. This type is an innovation. The interior of the tomb is decorated with multi-colored frescoes. As it moves towards the Gate, which may belong to the Frontinus to the South, on the way to Laodicea and Colossea, there are other grave structures belonging to the necropolis.
The tomb of Tiberius Cladius Talamos, mentioned in the long inscription, draws attention. The facade reflects the architecture of the house, the pilasters in the half-column style, the stone-clad windows, the architrave, the frieze in the frieze and the tooth-cut ion order, as in Blaundos. It reminds only Frontinus Street in terms of architectural arrangement. In the buildings on Frontinus Street, the dor order is manifested in the headings, as is the case with the triglyph-metope frieze.
Ancient Pool is one of the most important symbols of Pamukkale. It is considered to be one of the few pools in the world with its water which is especially beneficial for health. This pool, where thousands of people float a year, is good for many diseases. Especially during the Roman Empire, Hierapolis and its surroundings were a complete health center. In those years, thousands of people came to the health and health of more than 15 baths. Today, the ancient pool of MS VII. The earthquake occurred in the century. The portico, built in the ionic order of the civilian agora (near the 1st century AD), is located next to the colonnaded street. The antique pool has a relaxing effect due to the temperature of the water and is also effective for many diseases. According to the researches on this subject, the water of the ancient pool, heart disease, arteriosclerosis, blood pressure, rheumatism, skin, eye, rickets, paralysis, nerve and vascular diseases, is also very good when the spasm stomach. This clearly reveals the reason for the establishment of health centers around the Ancient Pool from the Roman Period.
The water temperature in the thermal pool is 36 ° C - 57 ° C, the pH value is 5.8 and the radon value is 1480 piccocuri / liter. Thermal waters, bicarbonate, sulphated, calcium, carbon dioxide, partially iron and has a radioactive composition. At the same time, the waters are suitable for bathing and drinking cures and have a melting mineral value of 2430 MG / liter.
The Temple of Apollon, which survived from its centuries ago, preserving all its glory until the present day, was founded on the Plutonion known as the ancient and religious cave. The remains of the temple, marble staircases, and the walls of Apollo's prophecy are the most important works worth seeing. These lands which hosted many civilizations contributed to the development of faith tourism.
the Apollon Temple
The present Temple was founded on Plutonion, known as the ancient and religious cave. In this place, the oldest religious center of indigenous people, Apollon met the main goddess of the region, Kybele. Ancient sources report that the priest of the Mother Goddess Kybele descended into this cave and was not affected by the poison gas. Remains of the upper structure in the Temple of Apollo MS III. century, but the foundations date back to the Late Hellenistic period.
The 70-meter-long Temple, known for its marble entrance, is located within the sanctuary surrounded by the temenos wall. The temenos wall leaned against the portico, which was excavated in the south, west and north. The grooved half-columns in the dor arrangement of the marble portico, astragal and pearl series, and the echinacea carry column heads adorned with the egg sequence.
The temple dates back to a later period, but the two ions in the museum, the exquisite title in a corinthian order, and some architectural fragments date back to the 1st century AD and point to the existence of a temple dating back to the earliest times. Apart from the marble staircase from the Temple of Apollo, a podium with marble slabs and eroded cornices is seen. Its façade is adorned with two columns located between two antes. The date can be made by the inscribed blocks used in the ante and its headings, the cella wall and the base. One of them reads an article about the prophecy of Apollo. According to the architectural decorations of temple III century.
On the stairway behind the temple, there is an area filled with fragments, column bodies, architrave fragments, capitals, pedestals from the Temple of Apollo. In this structure, IV. A statue of a qualified woman with curvy clothing was found. According to the inscription; Zeuxis' daughter Apphia is dedicated to the imperial gods and Demos’ (the personification of the people of Hierapolis).
One end is one of the most important historical monuments worth seeing in the north. On both sides of the colonnaded colonnades and public buildings, the street divides the city from one end to the other. In addition, the doors of the street entrance and exit are still the best examples of a civilization that carries history on the shoulder.
Street and Doors
The most important and wide main street of the city, which is about 1 km long, divides the city from one end to the other. This street, which extends in the north - south direction, has colonnaded porticoes on both sides and important public buildings. There are monumental doors at both ends. The doors are arched and towers next to them, in view of the triumphal arch. Frontinus Gate: It forms the monumental entrance gate of the city during the Roman Period. Located at the beginning of the 14-meter wide main street, the gate passes across the settlement and is located at the opposite end of the main road leading to Laodiceia and Collosai and the South Gate. The door is decorated with a simple cornice with three arched entrances built of smooth travertine blocks. It also leans against the round-planned towers reminding the door tradition of the Hellenistic Period.
In the north there is a well-preserved, three-eyed and frieze with rounded towers on both sides, and an inscription written in Latin and Greek, dedicated to the Emperor Domitian. Due to this inscription, it is called the Domitian Gate or the Roman Gate. The door of the Asian Proconsul Julius Sextus Frontinüs by I.S. It is known that it was built in 82-83 years. Therefore, the door is also called the Frontinus Gate. At the intersection of the road leading to the south from this door, İ.Ş. There is a Northern Byzantine Gate dating back to the 5th century.
South Roman Gate: The door opens to the hill that descends towards the Lykos river, directly opposite the great Honaz Mountain, especially at sunset, with a beautiful view of all shades of blue. The door is made of travertine blocks and re-used material including marble. It is leaning on two rectangular towers.
Northern Byzantine Gate: The North Gate, which is part of the fortification system of the city of Hierapolis during the period of Theodosius (end of the 4th century BC), constitutes the monumental entrance of the city in the Byzantine period symmetrically to the South Gate. The door was built with the reused material from the ruins of the Agora and was supported by two square-shaped towers. On the two sides of the entrance, four consoles, including an apotropeic lion, panther, head-on head, survived to protect the city from bad influences.
South Byzantine Gate: It was built in the 5th century AD. It is made of travertine blocks and spolia including marble. As with the door at the north, it is leaning on two rectangular planes and shaped by a lightening belt on a single piece architrave.
Hierapolis, which had a religious importance, gave great importance to cleanliness in ancient times. When the passengers entered the city, they built baths at the entrances and exits of the city to be clean. There are 3 baths in Hierapolis. The baths from these baths have been well preserved until today. Byzantine Baths VII. It was destroyed in the big earthquake in the 19th century. The Great Bath is today's Archeology Museum.
This very old structure dates back to the middle of the Imperial Age. The large arches on the side walls of this structure built of travertine rectangular blocks can be seen. It has an architecture which can be compared with the big bath structure in the center of the city. Bath structure VI. In the first half of the 19th century, Hierapolis was reorganized as a church when Phrygia was the capital of Pachatiana. In this structure, which was transformed into a church, they used the wall of a space north of the entrance to turn a pot with four columns. The entrance of the church, which was formed with two large arches, leaned against another small door with a belt as in the Byzantine Gate. In the large well-preserved place, there are 6 niches formed with arches. The walls carrying these arches have been added and the passageways to the walls have also been provided with tonnage transitions.
It is dated to a period immediately after the construction of the system. The building was built on the ruins of the southern stoa of Agora. The building of the bathhouse is located immediately after the door and nymphaeum at the entrance of the city and this structure, which has been built for the public good, is separated from the walls of the walls by a narrow road. It is interpreted as a calidarium with a pool pool and hypocaust system. The roof cover of the site uncovered by the excavations should have been covered with a brick dome according to the fragments obtained in the case of ruins. With the completion of the excavation of this building, important information about the typology of the transition to the baths of the Islamic world in the Middle Ages will be obtained in the public baths of the Imperial Period. According to archaeological data, the building was destroyed by VII. It was abandoned after the earthquake.
Today, the Great Bath building, where the Hierapolis Archeology Museum is located, is located in an area that opens to the travertine canals in the south-west of the city. After the great earthquake in the Nero period in AD 60, to benefit from a major water resource during the construction activities in the city, MS II. century. Water flowing from the source still passes over the ruins of this bath before flowing into the valley.
The bath is a stone work of local workers who are proficient in working the travertine in the region. Due to the limestone forming power of the running water, the building, whose original base was under 4 meters of limestone, was preserved in two places and the others were repaired. The places used as museums today were heated by hypocaust system in ancient times. Turkey Ministry of Culture, Monuments and Museums of the General Directorate, excavation and repair work is carried out to locate the original base of the spaces. Roman Periods in the Middle Ages were changed, divided by walls and spread to the road. XIII from the X. century. century, the settlement center and its influence exceeded the age of antiquity. During the excavations of the Byzantine and Seljuk periods, many of them attract attention to the richness of those who use bath glazed doors. At the end of the 18th century, one can see the columns covered by a ribbed cradle tuff roof, which is described by Choisy. The new excavations at the T hall have unearthed an original place with three large windows and apses, bounded on the west side by cornice.
Typical Roman architecture solutions that used to move the interior space were used on the side facades of the spaces, with quadrangular or round planned spaces, and the building was decorated by placing marble statues showing the power of Rome. The largest space D, 20X32 meters in size and three on the long edge, one quadrangular others are located in the semi-circular planned exedralar. Exedras are decorated with ornamented stitches and decorated arches. In the decorations in the middle of the sea shell, the edges of the volute, leaf and flower motifs can be recognized. The walls should be covered with multicolored marble slabs as seen from the metal anchor holes seen on their surfaces. There is a door on the two legs at the entrance and a space with stairs leading to the roof of the building. The large area to the east of this section is reserved for the palestra. The large rectangular spaces open to Palestine, have columnar facades made of local, white and pink stained bresten.
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