Samsun Tourist Map With Attractions Visiting Places
Samsun Tourist Map With Attractions Visiting Places
Samsun, Turkey's metropolitan status in one of the thirty provinces and cities in the province's central location. It is located in the Central Black Sea Region of the Black Sea Region.
Although the city was thought to have the name Eneti during the Hittites, there is no definite proof of this. The region colonized by the Greeks was called Peiraieus (in Greek: Πειραιεύς) in honor of Pericles in 670 BC. During the archaeological excavations, coins with puhu on one side and Peiraieus on this side were found. Later, the city was named Amissa (or Amissavana), which means "City of the Mother Goddess", which was pronounced as Amisene by the Greeks and gradually changed into Amisou (Greek: Αμισού) and Amisos (Greek: Αμισός). However, there are also claims that the word Amisos was originally from Palaca, not Luwian, and was based on the origin of Hamis. The city, which preserved the name Amisos during the Pontus Kingdom, was called as Missos by the Romans (some sources claim that it was called Pompeiopolis by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus). The name of the city, which was written with omikron instead of omega in Greek, can be mistakenly written as Amisus in the translation of the Latin alphabet because of the similarity between the two letters.
In the first quarter of the 1100s, a new city was established by Melik Gazi next to Amisos and the Turkish raiders called the newly established city among themselves Isamisos, meaning "the city next to Amisos". Amisos, where the Genoese settled in the first quarter of the 1200s, was named as Amisum, Simissi, Sinuso, Semiso according to various sources. At the same time, the name of the city was written by the Turks as صاميسون and said as Samisun. In Ibn Bîbî's al-Evâmirü'l-Alâiyye fi'l-umûri'l-Alâiyyah, in the Müsâmeretü'l-Ahbar which was written by Kerimüddin Mahmud-i Aksarayî, and in the early Ottoman historians Şükrullah's Behcetü't Tevârîh Nişancı Mehmed Pasha's Risâle-i Selâtîn-i Osmâniyye in the name of the city is mentioned in the form of Samisun.
Ibn Said is the first person to write and read the name of the city in the form of صامسون Samsun. The Sultan of Seljuk II. Gıyâseddin Mesud and İlhanlı ruler Olcaytu on the coins printed in the name of the word Samsun coins coins written by Ibn Said as written.
In almost all periods of the Ottoman Empire the name of the city was written as صامسون Samsun. In particular, this writing is based on the Ottoman historians Hoca Seddin Efendi and Cenâbî Mustafa Efendi and those who came after that. There were different uses in the early Ottoman period. The name of the city is one of the earliest Ottoman historians Neşrî's Kitâb-ı Cihannümâ in his book صامسون Samsun and صمسون Samsun, the syllables of Ahmedî's Scandinavia separately صام سون Sam Sun, Oruç Bey's Tevârîh-i Âl-i Osman hem Samsun as well as صام سون Sam Sun.
There are two different views about the origin of the name Samsun from Hebrew and Ottoman Turkish. According to another view, the name derives from Sam, one of Noah's sons. Both these views have not been proved.
According to the argument that the name is in Turkish, the name is derived from the word in Ottoman Turkish which means dog. means the military unit that manages their dogs. In Nef'i's Sihâm-ı Kazâ satire, the phrase a a great samsun-ı a dog geçmek is mentioned. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall's History of State-i Osmâniye II. It is written that there was a hunting unit called samsuncular in the Ottoman army during the Bayezid period. It is also known that there was a recreation place called Samsun household mesire in Istanbul during the reign of Süleyman I. However, there is no evidence that there is a link between Samsun and sansun, samsuncular or Samsun household mesure and the name derives from it.
The settlement history in Samsun dates back to the Old Stone Age. The layer discovered in Tekkeköy Caves and thought to date back to 60,000 BC is the oldest settlement ever discovered in the Black Sea Region. At the same time the third oldest in Turkey and in the world is estimated to be the eighth settlement. These people living in the cave settlement had not developed community consciousness and had not yet become a producer.
Kaşkalar, who came to Anatolia between 5000-3000 BC after dark ages and thought to be a branch of Hattiles, formed a site near Mert River in 3500 BC where Dündartepe Mound is located today. During the excavations; the oldest settlement belongs to the Copper Age; where settled communities live by hunting and animal husbandry, processing fabrics and leather; copper tools, weapons and jewelry.
The city was conquered by Mashshili I after the Kashkas and joined the Hittite Kingdom. It is thought that the people called Enetler lived in the settlement which had no special situation during the Hittite period and it was called as Eneti. The city was captured and destroyed by the Phrygians after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1182 BC. In the same period, the Cimmerians burned down the cities in the Eastern Black Sea. Although Lydian King Gigis defeated the Cimmerians and expelled them from the region, the city became a ruin during this period. Thereupon, a new settlement was established in the southwest of the old city, and the region which attracted the attention of Foça and / or Miletus in the 7th century BC due to its rich arable land and increasing population pressure was colonized. Miletus, which stands out with its maritime character, carried out intensive work in the Pontus region and pursued a rapid colonization policy in the region, established a colonial network spread over all Black Sea coasts in time, and for the first time in this period, Samsun became a commercially organized and developed commercial center. The city was conquered by the Athenians in about 436 BC, probably by the army under the command of Athinoklis during the Pontus campaign of Pericles and the name Peiraieus was made. In 546 BC, Croesus the King of Lydia and the Achaemenid Emperor II. After the war between Kiros and the break of Greek sovereignty in Anatolia, the city came under Persian rule.
During the reign of the Achaemenid Empire, during the reign of Darius I, the city was taken under the domination of the Cappadocian satrap and was ruled by military governors bearing the title of tyrant. With the defeat of Alexander's Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC and adding the Achaemenid Empire to the territory of Macedonia, Samsun came under Macedonian rule and thus, the city returned from a military-based management approach to democratic rule. One of the regions that declared independence from Macedonia, which had weakened and collapsed with the death of Alexander, was the Seleucid Empire led by Antiohos I, who came under the rule of this state in 315 BCE, but soon after Ariobarzanis or II. It was entered into the territory of Pontus Kingdom during Mithridatis period. VI. In Samsun, which was used as a royal residence during the reign of Mithridatis, a large zoning movement was initiated and the city made significant progress. In 63 BC, Roman general Lucius Licinius captured Amisos, Sinopi and Trebizond with his legions. The city, which was seized by Lucullus, was looted for a day, but it was completely recovered from being destroyed and partially repaired. It was connected to the province of Bithynia and Pontus.
Samsun towards the end of 48 BC Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Julius Caesar who knew the opportunity of the King of Pontus II. Surrounded by Farnakis, who wanted to remain loyal to Rome, the city fell despite the resistance and the people were slaughtered by the Pontus army. Once again under Pontus rule, the city was once again taken over by the victorious Roman army in the Battle of Zela, which took place a year later. Samsun, on the other hand, was defined as a free city due to its loyalty to the Roman Republic and was attached to the state as a tax-free, self-governing city. When Julius Caesar was assassinated during the second triumvirate, the city, which was under the domination of Marcus Antonius and connected to the province of Pontus Polemoniacus, was re-declared as a free city and an ally of Rome and later on to the province of Galatia. It is learned from a letter written to Emperor Trajan by Plinius, who was the governor of Samsun between 111-113, that the city was ruled by a local council under his own laws. Since the end of the 2nd century, Samsun gradually began to lose its free city concession and developed a more convergent understanding of central government.
According to the traditional narrative, Andreas himself visited the city in the 1st century and became Christian. While the empire of Diocletian continued in 303-305, the persecution of the followers of this religion manifested itself in Samsun as well as in other places. This situation came to an end with the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Samsun remained a Christian city, which was dominated by the Byzantine Empire, which ruled the eastern lands and adopted Christianity as the official religion. In Sinekdimos, dated to the 6th century by Ieroklis, Samsun is defined as a coastal town of the Pontic diocese of the Hellenopontos province. The city, which was connected to the province of Armeniakon with Justinian I, formed the northern border of Paflagonya and Armeniakon themas during the Middle Byzantine period. Due to its large hinterland, cereal products from the interior and the abundant olive harvest, the city was an intermediate port between Constantinople and the Crimea, and also maintained its position as an important port city as a base for maritime trade with the province of Pontos Polimoniakos.
Although the city of Malatya Emir Ömer bin Abdullah was seized and plundered by the order of Mutasım in 863, the city came under Byzantine rule again. Samsun remained in the second half of the 9th century as a center of export and commerkion for the 10th century. Samsun, which is a historical Greek city, received intensive Armenian immigration with the entry of Turks into Asia Minor in the second half of the 11th century. Since then, the city has continued to live as a trade colony.
After the Battle of Malazgirt, Danişmendliler, one of the Turkish families who entered Anatolia, started to invade towards the Middle Black Sea. Thereupon, Melik Gazi established a new settlement called Isamisos, which is thought to mean "the city next to Amisos" next to the existing city. Thus, two different cities called Isamisos emerged right next to the ancient Amisos that make up Samsun today. Isamisos, which was fortified by Danişmendliler who built Samsun Castle, was built in 1178 by the II. It was joined to the territory of the Anatolian Seljuk State by Kılıç Arslan. Although Andronikos I plundered the ports of Samsun and Sinop in 1228, Alaeddin Keykubad I led the campaign and ensured authority in the region. Although the Father Rebellion erupted in Samsun in the second half of the 1230s, the state managed to reestablish its sovereignty in the region in a short time.
After a week of 3 July 1243'de Kösedağ ended as a result of the Battle of the Mongol Empire became a state of the Anatolian Seljuk State II. Izzeddin Keykavus, IV. Kılıç Arslan and II. Alaaddin Keykubad began to be governed by the triad. Samsun II. Alaeddin Keykubad'ın took part in the administrative region, after his death in the region IV. It is up to Kılıç Arslan. The city, which was occupied by the Trabzon Empire in 1260, soon came under Turkish rule again. During this period, Samsun was governed by Nizâmüddîn Yahyâ and Mükîeddin Rahad, who were subordinate to Mücîrüddin Emırşah, who was assigned by the Mongols for the administration of the Canik district. Samsun, one of the most important ports of the Mongols, passed to the Eretna Principality in the mid-14th century, and after the death of Alaeddin Eretna, it frequently changed hands among the Canik principalities, especially the Kubadoğulları Emirate. Samsun, which was held by Candaroğulları Principality in 1395, was conquered by Kadı Burhaneddin State for a short time. The former Samsun, where Christians are located, has not been touched because of the peace with Genoese.
After the defeat of Bayezid I to Timur in 1402 in the Battle of Ankara, Kubadoğulları took advantage of the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, which entered the Fetret Period and re-established sovereignty in Samsun. Mehmed Çelebi, who declared his emirate around Amasya with the appointment of Timur, defeated Kubadoğlu Ali Bey and appointed Taşanoğlu Ahmed Bey as the governor of Samsun. Samsun, which was ruled by the Taşanoğulları Principality under Ottoman auspices until 1414, was besieged and seized by Kubadoğlu Cüneyd Bey, son of Kubadoğlu Ali Bey. Kubadoğlu Cüneyd Bey later begged for forgiveness from the Ottoman sultan, upon which he was left in his office as governor. Candaroğulları Bey Hızır Bey, son of Celâleddin Bayezid, the commander of Kastamonu, occupied Samsun by killing Kubadoğlu Cüneyd Bey. It has commissioned. Biçeroğlu Hamza Bey, who attacked Amisos, successfully captured Amisos against the Genoese who defended the city in spite of the fire in the city. Amadya Governor Murad Çelebi headed to Samsun in the hands of Hızır Bey, and Hızır Bey delivered the city to the Ottomans with consent. Thus, according to different sources, Amisos and Isamisos, which came under the Ottoman rule in 1416 or 1419, were under the same political roof for the first time. The two cities were united and included in the Ottoman administrative structure as a flag under the Greek state of Canik.
In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, under the Ottoman rule, Samsun became a trivial pier city. It was a forgotten city except for the help of the ropes and the ropes manufactured in the surrounding swamps and the wars. For this reason, he was subjected to bandit attacks many times. With the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, when the Crimean Khanate came out of the hands of the Ottoman Empire, trade in the city declined as the Ottoman rule in the Black Sea came to an end. The city was connected to the province of Trabzon in this period. The city lived its most difficult times during the Ottoman period in the 17th century. During Mehmed's reign, he was attacked by Cossacks and suffered great damage. With the time the people left the city, the population of Samsun decreased to the village level in 1642 and 1643.
Since the mid-19th century, Samsun has started to develop again with the spread of tobacco cultivation and the steam ship trade in the Black Sea. Due to the commercial and economic potential of the city, its population has increased day by day. Samsun, which once again became one of the important transit ports of the Black Sea coast, has turned into a rich commercial city, and the city was rebuilt in a planned manner as a result of the planning that was built by a French architect despite the great fire in 1869.
The struggle for the concretization of Megali Idea, the ideal of establishing a Hellenic empire, was given in Samsun, where almost half of the population was made up of Greeks, and this was first seen in the activities of the Greek gangs organized by Amasya Metropolitan Germanos Karavangelis in 1908. The Greeks did not only engage in armed struggle on the way to Megali Idea, but also continued their work in the economic field. The Greek side, which is the strong side of the city in economic terms, has seized, bought or bought us the tobacco fields in the hands of Turks in various ways with the support of Papasoğlu Yorgaki Efendi. The Russian Empire, the enemy of the Ottoman Empire during World War II, bombed Samsun on 28 May and 10 June 1915 along with other Ottoman port cities along the Black Sea coast. The Russians, who attacked again in 1916, targeted Samsun Port this time and on May 25, 1917, the aircraft belonging to the Kingdom of Romania made inspection flights over the city. Although the activity of the Greek gangs has decreased in the last years with Russian bombings, it has not stopped completely.
The Armistice of Mondros, which was signed by the Ottoman Empire after the defeat of the First World War, made all parts of the country open to occupation. In the period following the armistice, the Ottoman government wanted to pursue a policy of restoring social peace and territorial integrity, while the Greeks of the Black Sea claimed that they were facing massacre and demanded land. These political activities of the Greeks were influential in the Western world and created the perception that the Greeks and Armenians in Anatolia needed help; The Kingdom of Greece requested the occupation of the region, citing the problem of public order in the Black Sea. On March 9, 1919, the commander of the 15th Division Mustafa Asım Bey and Samsun Governor Ibrahim Ethem Bey declared martial law in the city and the city was occupied by the British military detachment of 200 people.
On 30 April 1919, Ferîk-i Sânî Mustafa Kemal, who was appointed as the 9th Army inspector and assigned to the establishment of public order in the region, arrived in Samsun on 19 May. Mustafa Kemal, who started to fulfill the requirements of his duty, made some investigations; As a result of these investigations, it was concluded that the Greek gangs attacked the Muslim people and that the local administrators could not intervene in these events with the involvement of the foreign states. Thereupon, Canik dismissed his governor and appointed a new one and ordered him to intervene directly in the turmoil in the region regardless of foreign soldiers.
The national excitement of Erzurum Congress and Sivas Congress, which Mustafa Kemal presided after leaving Samsun, also showed its effect in Samsun and Samsun Müdâfaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti (Society of Law) was established. Sefik Avni Pasha, who came to Samsun on May 7, 1920, became the commander of the 15th Division and was rearmament with the help of the Grand National Assembly. It began. Turkish gang leader Topal Osman came to Samsun in the spring of 1921, when the Greek gangs and the Samsun Navy Guard entered into violent clashes. With the withdrawal of British and French forces from the city, the Samsun Naval Guard, the Topal Osman and the 15th Division launched a major counterattack against the Greek gangs, hitting the gangs that attacked the Turkish villages. Subsequently, the division, which was taken over by the Governor İsmail Hakkı Bey and Cemil Cahit Bey, destroyed the Greek gangs around Samsun to a great extent. Following the destruction and dissolution of most of the Greek gangs, the Samsun Independence Court began the proceedings. Samsun Müdâfaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti organized a rally in Saathane Square on 30 August 1921 with the end of the danger in the city. The rally in which the speeches and information about the current situation was concluded ended with the prayer of the mufti and it was decided to send a telegram of loyalty to Ankara Government. On January 6, 1922, a statement was read with the participation of Pope Eftim, the Orthodox Leader of the Turkish Orthodox, who was invited to Samsun by Pope Atnas, the spiritual leader of the Samsun Turkish Orthodox Society, and the commitment of the Turkish Orthodox to Ankara was explained. In the same year, the Armenians of Samsun announced that they had cut their ties with the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul and that they were affiliated to Ankara.
On the morning of June 7, 1922, Georgios Averof and Kilkis battleships, two panther class destroyers, two auxiliary cruisers and four small minesweepers arrived in the Greek fleet off the coast of Samsun. The Samsun Navy Guard and the 10th Division, which took defense measures, started to accumulate ammunition in the trenches and artillery batteries were installed on the beach. The bombing, which started at 15.30 and lasted for two hours, caused severe destruction especially to the coastal part of the city. Grand National Assembly of Turkey collected after bombardment June 12 and 16 June 1922 meeting as a result of the whole Black Sea have decided on deportation of Greeks in the region by declaring the battlefield coast and forced migration are given in Samsun relocation of name applied since 1921 has systematically enhanced. 10th Division Brigade Commander Chief of Staff Hafiz Zühtü Bey also cleared the gangs around Çarşamba and Ünye, and Samsun and its region were completely cleared of Greek gangs. With the Turkish victory, the ideal of Megali Idea became a thing of the past, the 15th Division on the western front returned to Samsun and the 10th Division was disbanded.
During the Ottoman period and in the first months of the republic, the administrative unit covering the borders of Samsun today was Canik and the center of the district was Samsun. National and finished with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey Canik Fighting remaining in the borders of Turkey has gained the status of the province of Samsun province name on the making of banners and Sanjak. With the exchange of 1923, the Greeks in the city migrated to Greece, and the vacated places from the Greeks were allocated to the refugees. Today, there are settlements called Yeni Amisos of Üsekdere municipality of Greece and Yeni Samsun of Preveze.
The city was divided into five different districts as Bafra, Çarşamba, Havza, Terme and Vezirköprü. Apart from these administrative units that existed before the republic, the number of districts in Samsun increased to six with the construction of Ladik district on June 1, 1928; With the establishment of Kavak districts in 1934 and Alaçam districts in 1944, the total number of districts in the city was eight. With the law no. 3392, adopted on 19 June 1983, Salıpazarı, Asarcık, Ondokuzmayı and Tekkeköy districts were established. Law No. 3644, adopted on 9 May 1990, established two more districts called Ayvacık and Yakakent. The central district of Samsun, which was included in the metropolitan municipality with the decree numbered 504, which was adopted on 2 September 1993, also received the metropolitan district status. On March 6, 2008, with the law no. With the participation of Gazi and Yeşilkent towns to İlkadım, it was decided to establish a district named İlkadım and to make the district of Canik a district. With this change, the metropolitan districts were identified as Atakum, İlkadım, Canik and Tekkeköy. with Law No. 6360 issued in 2012, Turkey in 2014 after the local elections, boundaries of metropolitan municipalities in sync with provincial territorial boundaries, the concept of central districts has been removed. The sub-administrative unit that follows the districts is the neighborhood and there are 1,247 neighborhoods depending on the 17 districts in the province.
In Samsun, where the first steps of the Republic from the 1950s to the railroad breakthrough, the road network was given priority in these years. The city, where the power plant started to serve in 1928, reached the central water supply network in 1929 and the first natural gas was supplied in 2005.
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