Manisa Tourist Map
Manisa Tourist Map
The settlement, also known as the "City of Sehzades", is known for its mesur paste, sultanate grape and Manisa Tarzan. In ancient times, "Magnesia" was known as "Magnesia ad Sipylum" with its full name during the Roman Empire period. The city was founded at the foot of Spil Mountain. A large part of the Gediz River passes through the provincial borders.
The history of Manisa dates back to the Chipped Stone Age. Ancient sources are the founders of the city, which point to the Magnets that live around Pelion Mountain in the Region of Teselya, Greece. When the magnets migrated to Western Anatolia, they first founded Magnesia on the banks of the Menderes River, and a branch to the north, where they set up Magnesia on the slopes of the Sipylos Mountain. They called the name Magnesia ad Sipylum to distinguish Magnesia from Menderes Magnesia.
Strabon has a large area of volcanic eruptions that occurred between 1.1 million years and 12 thousand years in the vicinity of Kula, which is called Katakekaumene (Burn Country). The researches have revealed footprints of 15 thousand to 25 thousand years of chipped stone age in the region.
Manisa was dominated by the Hittites, Phrygians, Ionians, Lydians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Saruhanoğulları and Ottomans.
Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians and Persians
It is thought that the region was called Arzava during the Hittite period. The most important work of the period is the Kybele Kaya Monument. The 13th century BC was built during a Hittite campaign to the region.
The Phrygians who came to Anatolia through Thrace and the Straits in 1200 BC had a short-term dominance in most of today's Manisa lands since the mid-8th century BC.
The capital of the Lydian Kingdom, which reigned around Manisa and Aydın from the end of the Bronze Age until the 6th century BC, is today the city of Sardis, located at the borders of the Salihli district. It is the Kingdom of Lydia, which makes history and use the first money. These first coins were printed from the gold-silver mixture "Electrum" mine and had the lion's head which was the coat of Lydian Kingdom. In today's Bintepeler region between Salihli and Akhisar districts, tumuli and king tombs belonging to Lydians were found. The ancient route, the King's Road, entered the provincial boundaries starting from Iran and Mesopotamia and passed through the city of Sardis, the center of the Lydian Kingdom. The Kingdom of Lydia was defeated in 546 BC during the war with the Achaemenid Empire, and the kingdom of Sardis was seized and the period of the Lydian Kingdom was over.
Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Period
During the Asia-Alexander campaign of Alexander the Great, the Western Anatolia region, including Manisa in 334-333 BC, joined the lands of the Macedonian Kingdom. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Manisa was ruled by his generals and he was ruled by Lysimakhos after the Ipsos War in 301 BC. When Lysimakhos died during the Battle of Korupedyon in 281 BC, the entire region of Manisa was joined by the Seleucid Empire.
BC 190 After the War of Magnesia, Manisa joined the Roman territory and was left to the kingdom of Pergamon, which was an ally of the Romans. II. Attalos was founded by Philadelphia. In 133 BC, he had no heir. Upon the will of Attalos, he became the ruler of the Roman Empire in Manisa with the Kingdom of Pergamon. In 395 AD, when Rome was divided into two, Manisa and its vicinity remained in Byzantine territory. During this period, Manisa became the episcopal center and the settlements of Sardis, Philadelphia and Thyateira were in an important position. In Byzantine domination, the majority of the province and its center were included in the Thrakesion scripture. During the occupation of Constantinople by the Latinos, the Emperor of Iznik III. Ioannis lived in Manisa for much of his reign. In this period, the center of Manisa and its surroundings improved greatly.
Principalities and Ottoman Period
After the Battle of Malazgirt, which took place in 1071, the Turkish invasions extended to Manisa. Manisa and its environs were taken under control by the Seljukian commander Çaka Bey, but after the battle of Dorileon (1097), he was rebuilt by the Byzantine sovereignty.
Saruhanoğulları Principality Period
It was founded by Saruhan Bey in the vicinity of Manisa during the period of the Anatolian Principalities, which started with the dissolution of the Anatolian Seljuk State. The Saruhanogullari Principality is the Saruhanli arm of Afshar. Some sources claim that a Sarezhan named Er Saru or Saruhan served in the Seljuk State. It is said that the name of this person's son was Alpagı and that Saruhan Bey was also the son of Alpagı.
After establishing the principality of the province, Saruhan Bey expanded the lands by capturing the lands of Manisa, which he had conquered in 1313, by establishing a navy, expediting the coasts of Greece and the Thracian region, forming alliances with the principalities and states around him, correcting the economic situation through the navy, and building mosques, madrasas and libraries. The "Manisa Ulu Mosque" built in 1366/67 is the most important artifact from the Saruhanlılar period to the present. During the Western Anatolia campaign carried out by Yıldırım Beyazıt in order to provide the Anatolian unity in 1390, Hızırşah, who was at the head of the Saruhan Principality, handed over Manisa to the Ottomans by meeting Yıldırım. Yıldırım Bayezit, who dominated the city, left the management of the eastern parts of the city to Hızırşah and combined Manisa with the Karesi principality and handed it over to his son Ertuğrul.
When Timur entered Anatolia and defeated Yildirim Bayezit in the Battle of Ankara, his brother Orhan Bey, who had sought refuge in Timur before, came to Manisa and printed money in 1403 as a symbol of independence. However, upon the separation of Timur forces, Hizirshah seized control of the Ottoman Empire, the second founder of the Ottoman Empire, which was accepted as the second founder of the Ottoman Empire in order to ensure the unity of the Ottoman Empire 1405-1406 during the western operation of the Khidrshah, was killed and killed by Mehmed I. Orhan After the death of Bey in 1412, the Saruhan Principality was definitely a part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Period
After the Ottoman rule in 1412, Manisa became known as Saruhan Sanjak and became an administrative unit. The city has become one of the most important political education centers where Ottoman princes have gained the experience of reign between the years of 1437-1595. In Manisa II. Murad, Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Suleyman the Magnificent, II. Selim, III. Murad III. Mehmet and I. Mustafa, including the Ottoman sultans who were sitting on the throne as well as the 16 princes in these periods have made the sancak principality. Although there was a relatively quiet period under the Ottoman rule in Manisa and its environs, the rebels such as Kalenderoğlu, Birgili Cennetoğlu and state officials such as Yusuf Pasha and Ilyas Pasha were subjected to the attacks and plundering movements in the 17th century. In 1833, the Egyptian sovereignty, under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, was seen.
War of Independence Period
The city of Manisa was occupied by the Greek army on 26 May 1919 and was taken back by the Turkish army on September 8, 1922. The Greek army used the tactic to burn down while retreating from Western Anatolia. "The retreating Greek army has embraced a policy of incineration and has carried out savages against all the vulnerable Turks who have come to the forefront," said Nettleton Fisher, a historian of the Middle East. Wrote. Scottish historian Kinross Greek withdrawal, "Already in front of his (the Greek army), most of the neighborhood was in ruins. In the historic holy city of Manisa, only 500 out of 18 thousand buildings survived." depicted in the words. The fire that started on the night of September 5, 1922 and continued until September 8 is called the "1922 Fire of Manisa".
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