Information About Cappadocia
Cappadocia (Kappadokia) is a region that has been eroded by rain and wind for millions of years due to the soft layers formed by lava and ashes erupted by Erciyes, Hasandağı and Güllüdağ 60 million years ago.
The human settlement extends to the Paleolithic turn. The land that the Hittites lived became one of the most important centers of Christianity in later periods. Rocky-cut houses and churches have made the area a huge haven for Christians escaping the oppression of the Roman Empire.
The area called Cappadocia is a region of geographical formations concentrated on a 250 km² area, especially in Nevşehir, a region spread to Kırşehir, Niğde, Aksaray and Kayseri. The most visited regions are; Uchisar, Goreme, Avanos, Ürgüp, Derinkuyu, Kaymakli and Ihlara are the ones that are in this area.
Cappadocia region is a place where nature and history are integrated. While the geographical events formed the Peribacalari, in the historical process, people were also houses, churches and monasteries inside these peribacas, adorned with frescoes, making the traces of civilizations thousands of years old. The written history of Cappadocia, where human settlements stretch as far as the Paleolithic turn, begins with the Hittites. Cappadocia is one of the important junctions of the Silk Road, which houses trade colonies throughout history and establishes a commercial and social bridge between countries.
In the 12th century BC, the collapse of the Hittite Empire began a dark period in the region. The late Hittite Kingdoms bearing Assyrian and Phrygian influences dominate the region in this period. These kingdoms last until the Persian occupation of the 6th century BC.
In 332 BC, the Greater Alexandrian Persians defeated, but with great resistance in Cappadocia. In this period, the Kingdom of Cappadocia is established. Towards the end of the 3rd century BC, the power of the Romans begins to be felt in the region. In the mid-1st century BC the Cappadocian Kings were appointed with the power of Roman generals and reduced from the throne. When the last king of Cappadocia dies in 17 AD, the region becomes a province of Rome.
In the 3rd century BC Christians come to Cappadocia and the region becomes a center of education and thought for them. During the years 303-308, the pressure on the Christians increased. But Cappadocia is an ideal place to protect from repression and spread Christian teaching. Deep valleys and shelters sheltered from volcanic soft rocks provide a safe area for Roman soldiers.
The 4th century is the period of people who are later called "Father of Cappadocia". But the preeminence of the region, III. Leon's icon reaches its peak by forbidding. In the face of this situation, some pro-icon people begin to take refuge in the region. Iconoclasm movement lasts more than a hundred years (726-843). Although a few Cappadocian churches were influenced by Iconoclasm during this period, those who lived on the sidewalk continued their worship here. The Cappadocian monasteries are very evolved in this period.
Again during these periods, Arab raids started to Anatolian Christian regions from Armenia to Cappadocia. People who run away from these raids cause the styles of the churches in the region to change. In the 11th and 12th centuries, Cappadocia passes through the Seljuks. In this and the following Ottoman times the region will have a problem-free period. The last Christians in the region left Cappadocia with the exchange of 1924-26 with beautiful architectural examples behind them.
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