Anıtkabir Mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk Map And Location



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          Anıtkabir Mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk,, the Turkish Independence War, Revolution and the leader of Turkey's first president, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, in Ankara Anıttepe (formerly the Rasattepe) is the mausoleum. The fourth president, Cemal Gursel, was also buried in the Revolutionary Martyrs section in 1966. Since 1973, the tomb of İsmet İnönü is also in Anıtkabir.

 Project competition

          It was decided to open a project competition after the site was determined for the Anıtkabir project. Only European architects were required to enter this competition, but because of the reactions in public opinion, the contest was brought to international status by opening up to Turkish architects. A neutral jury was established by the government. Paul Bonatz, Ivan Tenghom and Hungarian Prof. Karoly Wickinger and Turkish artists Arif Hikmet Holtay, Architect Muammer Cavusoglu and Architect Muhlis Sertel. 27 foreign and 20 Turkish architects participated in the competition and as a result 3 works were found worthy of reward. One of them made the Tannenberg Monument. Johannes Kruger, one of Prof. Prof. Dr. Arnoldo Foschini, one of the teachers of ITU Faculty of Architecture. Dr. Emin Halid Onat and Assoc. Dr. Ahmet Orhan Arda's works. The government decided to implement the works of Turkish artists. The reason for this decision was as follows: The three projects that won the competition were in many ways the same. But within these, the work of two Turks expressed this national issue more successfully. Furthermore, as stated in the jury report, the compliance of this project with the land is far superior to other projects.

          The name of Anıttepe was Rasattepe because of the presence of an observation station before the mausoleum was built. 906 altitude on this hill, BC. In the 12th century, there were tumuli (tombs) belonging to Phrygian civilization that established a state in Anatolia. After the decision to build the Anıtkabir in Rasattepe, archaeological excavations were carried out to remove these tumuli. The artifacts from these tumuli are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.

Project and Construction

          The commission commissioned for the election of the location of Anıtkabir opened an international competition on 1 March 1941. Competition, Turkey, Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, France, and was attended by a total of 47 projects from Czechoslovakia. 3 of these projects were awarded by the commission. Because of the more successful expression of the national subject and the suitability of the project to the land. Dr. Emin Onat and Assoc. Dr. It was decided to implement the project of Ahmet Orhan Arda and after the determination of the Anıtkabir project, expropriation works were carried out in the first stage and construction was started on 9 October 1944. The construction of Anıtkabir was completed in 1953 in four stages over a 9-year period.

          The first part of the construction of the retaining wall of the lion road and the ground level was started on 9 October 1944 and the construction was completed in 1945. The second part of the construction covering the mausoleum and the auxiliary buildings surrounding the ceremonial square started on 29 September 1945 and completed on 8 August 1950. At this stage, it was decided to prepare the basic project of the monument mass considering the reduction of the basic pressure according to the construction and reinforced concrete structure system. By the end of 1947, the foundation excavation and insulation of the mausoleum were completed and the iron installation of the 11 meter high reinforced concrete foundation system, which would prevent all kinds of depressions, was completed. An important part of the road system with the entrance towers, plantation plantation, plantation works and a large part of the irrigation system of the land have been completed.

          The construction of the third part consisted of the roads, the lion road, the ceremonial square and the stone pavement of the mausoleum top floor, the stair steps, the replacement of the sarcophagus and the installation works. The construction of the fourth part of Anıtkabir included the building of the hall of honor, the vaulting of the vaults and the construction of the stone profiles and eaves around the hall of honor. The fourth section of the construction began on 20 November 1950 and was completed on 1 September 1953.

Architectural Features

          In the Anıtkabir Project, there was a vault section on the colonnade of the mausoleum. On December 4, 1951, the government asked the architects of the project whether it was possible to finish the building more quickly by reducing the height of 28 meters of the "Hall of Honor". As a result of their work, architects reported that it was possible to cover the Hall of Honor with a concrete ceiling instead of a stone vault. Thus, the weight of the vault structure to the floor and the technical problems it would cause would be eliminated. Again, in the construction of Anıtkabir, the porous, various colors of travertine, which can be easily processed as an outer covering material on the concrete, and the marble used in the mausoleum coverings, white travertines used in sculpture groups, lion statues and mausoleum columns Pınarbaşı, Kayseri, white travertines used in the inner walls of the tower from Polatlı and Malıköy. Black and red travertines brought from Kayseri Boğazköprü locality, yellow travertines brought from Karabük Eskipazar in the ground floor of ceremonial square and towers were used in the construction of the columns that surround the victory hall, exterior, walls and ceremonial square.

          The cream, red and black marbles used in the floor of the Hall of Honor were brought from Çanakkale, Hatay and Adana, and the tiger's coat used in the inner side walls of the hall of honor was brought from Afyonkarahisar and the green marble was taken from Bilecik. The 40-square-foot monolithic sarcophagus was brought from Osmaniye, and the white marble covering the side walls of the sarcophagus was brought from Afyonkarahisar.

          The general architecture of the Anıtkabir reflects the characteristics of the period known as the 50 Second National Architecture Period Mimarlık between 1940 and 1950 in Turkish architecture. In this period, monumental buildings, which give importance to symmetry, which used to be made of cut stone materials were made, the Mausoleum is also compatible with these features. In the first project, the mausoleum was designed as two-storey, but for economic reasons the construction of the second floor was abandoned. Together with its features, the Seljuk and Ottoman architectural features and ornamental elements are frequently found in Anıtkabir, for example, on the exterior facades, where the walls meet with the roof, there are the borders called the sawtooth in the Seljuk stonemasonry surrounding the towers on four sides. In addition, the stone ornaments, which are used in some places of Anıtkabir (Mehmetçik Tower, Museum Directorate) and also known as rosettes, stand out in Seljuk and Ottoman art.

          Anıtkabir, which is one of the best architectural examples of the period when it was built with all these features, covers an area of ​​approximately 750.000 m² and is divided into two parts as Peace Park and Memorial Block.

Peace Park

          Mausoleum; Ataturk peace at home, peace in the green area of ​​'formed with seedlings from a variety of foreign countries, inspired by some of Turkey's Peace and aphorisms increases. For this reason, it was called the Peace Park. Afghanistan, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Japan, Israel, Italy, Japan, Japan, Spain, Egypt, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, United States trees and saplings from 24 countries. Today, there are 48,500 ornamental trees, tree and ornamental plants of 104 different species in the Peace Park.

Monument Block

          Covering an area of ​​120.000 m² in total, Anıtkabir Memorial Block consists of three parts:

1st Road

2nd Square

3.Mozol to

          When you enter the Anıtkabir from the Tandoğan gate, you can reach the 26-staired stairs at the beginning of the Aslanlı Yol, from the road stretching within the Peace Park. The "Istiklâl" and "Hürriyet" towers are located at the top of the stairs. There are ten towers in the mausoleum building, which are placed in symmetry. These towers, which greatly influenced the formation of the Republic of Turkey, the Turkish nation and are given names representing lofty concepts. Towers are similar in plan and structure. Close to the square 12 x14 x7,20 m. on the rectangular plan of the size of the tower is covered with pyramid roofs. On the hills of the roofs, there is a bronze spearhead seen in old Turkish tents. Geometrical ornaments taken from old Turkish kilim patterns were applied in fresco technique. In addition, the inner walls of the towers have a composition about the name of the tower and Atatürk's concise words.

Istiklal Tower

          The relief on the inner walls of the İstiklal Tower, which is on the right side of the Lion Road, shows an eagle figure standing on a rock next to a young person standing and holding a sword with both hands. The eagle is depicted as a symbol of power, independence and independence in mythology and Seljuk art. The young man holding the sword represents the Turkish nation who defended the independence. Relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.

In addition, Atatürk's words about the independence of the tower walls are as follows:

While our nation seemed to end with the most terrible extinction, the voice of their ancestors, who invited their son to rebel against risen, rose in our hearts and called us to the final War of Independence. (1921)

It means war, war. Success in life is certainly possible in achieving success in war. (1927)

-We are the nation who wants life and independence. (1921)

- There is no principle like compassion and mercy. The Turkish nation, Turkey's future children, should bear in mind for a moment. (1927)

-This nation has not lived as deprived of independence, cannot live and will not live, either independence or death. (1919)

In the tower, there is illuminated panels depicting Anıtkabir with Anıtkabir model.

In front of the tower, there are 'Women's Sculpture Group' consisting of three women dressed in national costumes. Two of these women have a thick wreath extending from the sides to the ground. wreath made up of grain sheafs represents Turkey's blessings. The woman on the left, the hand on her hand forward Atatürk's mercy to God, the woman in the middle of her face and weeping is crying. This trio group expresses the fact that the Turkish woman is proud, dignified and determined even in the deep pain of Atatürk's death. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Anka Özkan.

Tower of Liberty

          At the relief of Hürriyet Tower; a figure of angel holding a paper in his hand, and a raging horse beside the angel, are depicted. The angel figure symbolizes the sanctity of independence and the paper in his hand symbolizes the lı Freedom Statement Mel. The horse figure is a symbol of freedom and independence. Relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu. In the tower walls, Atatürk's words about freedom are written.

It is the Turkish nation to live as a respectable and honorable nation. This can only be achieved by having full independence. A nation devoid of independence, no matter how rich and abundant, cannot qualify for a process higher than a servant of civilization. (1927)

-I think it is possible that a nation's dignity, dignity, honor and humanity can be found continuously, and that nation can have freedom and independence.

- National sovereignty, equality and justice are also based on.

- We are a symbol of freedom and independence in all our historical lives.

Within the tower, there is a photo exhibition showing the construction works of Anıtkabir and stone samples used in construction.

There is a 'Male Sculpture Group' consisting of three men in front of the tower. The male on the right represents the Turkish soldier with his helmet and thick hood, the Turkish soldier with his book in his hand, the Turkish youth with his book in his hand, and the Turkish peasant with a local dress a little behind him. The deep pain of the statues and the peculiarness of the Turkish Nation and the high will power were expressed. The sculpture group is the work of Hüseyin Özkan.

The Lion Road

          There are 24 lion statues representing 24 oghuz boyu in a seated position on both sides of the 262 meter long road built to prepare the visitors to Atatürk's presence. The statues are double-double, which represents the unity and solidarity of the Turkish nation. Due to Atatürk's importance in Turkish and Anatolian history, the statues of lions made with the art style of the Hittites who established civilizations in Anatolia represent the force and tranquility. The road is paved with travertine stones. At the end of the road, the Turkish flag and Çankaya appear. Sculptures Hüseyin Anka Özkan's work

Mehmetçik Tower

          At the end of the lion road on the right 'Mehmetçik Tower' is located. On the relief of the outer surface of the tower; Mehmetçik's departure from the house of the front is expressed. This composition depicts a sad but proud mother who threw her hand over her son's shoulder, sending her to war for the homeland. Relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu. On the walls of the tower are Atatürk's words about Mehmetçik and Turkish women:

-The Turkish hero of Anatolia has understood the meaning of the wars of Anatolia and has fought with a new country. (1921)

-In no place in the world, there is no possibility to talk about the work of women on the Anatolian peasant woman in any of them. (1923)

-The unit of measurement for the heroism and dedication of this nation's children cannot be found.

There is a 'Sinevizyon Hall' with a capacity of 60 people. Documentary films about Atatürk and Anıtkabir are shown here.

Defense Tower

          At the end of the lion road at the end of this tower wall on the outer surface of the relief, War of Independence, which is the basis of national unity of Defense is expressed in the Law. On the relief, holding the sword in one hand and stretching the other hand forward. A male figure is depicted. Turkey under the great tree of hands extended forward, while the male figure protecting it represents a nation united for the purpose of salvation. Relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the walls of the tower are the words Atatürk said about the Law of Defense:

- It is essential to make national power and national will dominant. (1919)

-Ulus will personally take his life, his independence, and his entire existence personally. (1923)

-History; never deny the blood, right and existence of a nation. (1919)

-The most basic, prominent desire and faith which were born of the conscience of the nation and inspired him were given: salvation. (1927)

Within the tower, various books and souvenirs about Anıtkabir and Atatürk are presented to the visitors.

Ceremonial Square

          At the end of the Aslanli Road, the Ceremony Square is 129 x84,25 m. dimensions. The floor of this area with a capacity of 15.000 people; It is decorated with 373 carpets and kilim patterns consisting of black, red, yellow and white travertine stones.

Flagpole

          In the middle of the entrance stairs to the 28-square ceremonial square in the direction of Anitkabir, the Turkish flag is fluctuated on a one-piece high pole. The 33.53 m high mast, which was built specifically in America, is the highest of single-piece steel flag poles in Europe. 4 meters of the mast remains below the pedestal. Nazmi Cemal, a Turkish citizen of Turkish origin living in the USA, was manufactured in his own flagpole factory and presented to Anitkabir in 1946. The relief found on the base of the flagpole; torch symbolizes Turkish civilization, sword attack power, helmet defense power, oak branch victory, olive branch symbolizes peace. The Turkish flag fluctuates on the values ​​of the nation, such as defending the country, victory, protecting peace and establishing civilization. The relief is the work of Kenan Yontunç. The flagpole was renovated on 29 October 2013. The original pole, which was presented by the late Nazmi Cemal, is on the back side of the flagpole.

Anıtkabir Library

          Atatürk and the War of Independence Museum Command Headquarters in Anıtkabir Library. As a 'specialized library' containing books in Turkish and foreign languages ​​on the National Struggles and Revolutions, Atatürk provides service to the researcher and reader between 09.00-12.30 / 13.30-17.00 on weekdays. There are 3113 volume books in the library.

Victory Tower

On the walls of the tower, Atatürk's most important triumphs are written and his concise remarks about victory are written.

Inside the tower, on 19 November 1938 Atatürk's body was exhibited at the Dolmabahçe Palace and the cannon carriage at the Sarayburnu was presented to the navy.

İsmet İnönü's sarcophagus

          Peace and Victory Towers between the columns formed sideways in the middle of December 25, 1973, who died in the center of Atatürk's closest gunmate, the Western Front of the War of Independence commander and II. President İsmet İnönü has a symbolic sarcophagus. The grave room is on the lower floor.

İsmet İnönü was buried to the Anıtkabir on 28 December 1973 with the decision of the Council of Ministers.

Peace Tower

          On the inner wall of the tower, there is a relief composition that depicts Atatürk's principle of Peace at Home, Peace in the World. In this relief the peasants are farmed and a soldier figure that protects them by extending his sword is depicted. This soldier symbolizes the Turkish army, a solid and secure source of peace. In other words, citizens continue their daily lives in the peace environment provided by the Turkish army. Relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the walls of the tower, Atatürk's words about peace are mentioned.

-The citizens of the world should be treated with jealousy, greed and distraction. (1935)

Peace in the Middle East. War is a murder unless the nation's life is threatened. (1923)

Inside the tower, the ceremony and authority cars of Lincoln, which Atatürk used between 1935-1938, are exhibited.

April 23 Tower

          April 23, 1920 in Turkey is located inside the tower walls, a relief representing the opening of the Grand National Assembly. On this relief, the paper held by the standing woman is written on 23 April 1920. In the other hand, there is a key symbolizing the opening of our National Assembly. The relief is the work of Hakkı Atamulu.

Atatürk's concise remarks about the opening of the assembly in the tower walls are:

- There was only one decision: to establish an independent, new Turkish State based on national sovereignty. (1919)

-Turkey and the only true representative of the State is the one and only Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Our points of view are the power, power, sovereignty, directing of the administration to the people, keeping them in the hands of the people.

Inside the tower, a special Cadillac-branded automobile used by Atatürk between 1936 and 1938 is on display.

Misak-ı Millî Tower

          The embossment inside this tower at the entrance of the museum symbolizes the nation's cohesion as a single body. The relief consists of four hands superimposed on a sword handle. This composition refers to the nation of drinking for the rescue of the Turkish homeland. Relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the walls of the tower, the following words of Atatürk about the National Pact:

- The general rule of our country, the national moment is the iron hand of the nation that writes to the historical phase. (1923)

We want to live free and independent within our national borders. (1921)

- Nations that cannot find the national self are the hunt of other nations. (1923)

In the ceremonies performed in Anıtkabir within the tower, the mausoleum where the Anıtkabir Special Book is signed is located. At the same time, there are photographs of important ceremonies performed in Anıtkabir in the actuarial panels located in this tower which is the entrance of the museum.

Revolution Tower

          In this tower, which is the continuation of the museum, the clothes Atatürk wore are exhibited. The relief of a weak, weak hand on the inner wall of the tower symbolizes the collapsing Ottoman Empire. A strong right hand raised as if the sky to light another torch hair, symbolizes the new Turkey and Ataturk's reforms made to the Turkish nation to deliver the level of contemporary civilization. Relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

Atatürk's words about the reforms are written on the tower walls:

- If a society does not walk along with all the women and men for the same purpose, there is no technical possibility and scientific possibility to advance and civilize.

-We have inspired our inspiration not from the sky and the unknown realm, but directly from life.

Atatürk's clothes and the gifts given to him are also included in the section.

Republic Tower

          The former rector of Anadolu University Dr. There is a wax statue and an original work table in the actual dimensions of Atatürk made by Yılmaz Büyükerşen.

On the walls of this tower, Atatürk has the following words about the Republic.

- Our greatest strength, our most reliable foundation, is that we have grasped our national sovereignty and put it into the hands of the people in action and we have proven that we can hold them in the hands of the people.

Inside the tower, the buildings of the Manastir Military High School, the Sivas and Erzurum congresses, the model of the first TBMM building and the photographs of those periods are exhibited.

Mausoleum

          In the middle of the 42-step staircase leading to the mausoleum, which is the most important part of the Anıtkabir, there is the oz Chair of the Oratory oz. The ceremonial square facade of the marble lecture is decorated with circular geometric motifs. The rostrum is the work of Kenan Yontuç.

The mausoleum is built on a long rectangular plan with dimensions of 72x52x17 meters. On the front of the mausoleum, on the left is Atatürk's address to the Turkish youth. The letters are gilded on stone relief.

Hall of Honor

          The Hall of Honor is entered through the bronze doors. On the right, Atatürk's last message to the Turkish army, dated 29 October 1938, left on the second. President İsmet İnönü's message of condolence to the Turkish nation dated November 21, 1938, published on Atatürk's death takes place. These two inscriptions were written on May 19, 1981, the 100th anniversary of Atatürk's birth.

There is a symbolic sarcophagus of Atatürk in the niche where there is a large window opposite the entrance. The sarcophagus brought from Osmaniye province is a single piece of red marble and weighs 40 tons. The sarcophagus is covered with white Afyon marble. The floor of the Hall of Honor is covered with red, black, green and tiger skins from Adana and Hatay and the side walls from Afyon and Bilecik.

The side gallery ceilings are adorned with mosaics with a ceiling of 27 beams. The hall of honor is 17 m high and there are 12 bronze torches on the side walls. The top of the mausoleum structure is covered with a flat lead roof.

Grave Room

          Atatürk's body was found in a grave dug directly to the ground on the ground floor of the mausoleum. The tomb chamber, which is located right below the symbolic sarcophagus in the hall of honor, which is the first floor of the mausoleum, has an octagonal plan in Seljuk and Ottoman architectural style. It has a pyramidal cone and is decorated with geometric motif mosaics. Floor and walls was covered with black, red and white marble. In the middle of the grave chamber there is a red marble sarcophagus in the direction of Qibla. Marble sarcophagus around the whole province in Turkey, North Cyprus there is a brass vases filled with soil that is sent from the Republic of Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Ataturk's Mausoleum of Ataturk and the War of Independence Museum

          In accordance with the requirements of Anıtkabir Project Competition, the section between the Misak-ı Millî and the Revolution towers was designated as a museum. To this end, on 21 June 1960 Anitkabir Atatürk Museum was opened. The items used by Atatürk and the gifts and the clothes presented to him are exhibited.

In the museum, Atatürk's medals and decorations and spiritual sons A. Afet İnan, Rukiye Erkin and Sabiha Gökçen exhibited the objects belonging to Atatürk. It was opened on 26 August 2002 (on the 80th anniversary of the Great Offensive). With the new arrangement, 3000 square meters area under the Atatürk mausoleum is included in the museum. The vaulted section, which was allocated but not used for the burial of the presidents, was transformed into the exhibition areas where Atatürk's revolutions were told. With the addition of new sections, the museum has become a museum where Atatürk's War and the War of Independence were revived, not a place where Atatürk's objects were exhibited.

Sakarya Battle

          On the right side of the composition there is a young man, two horses, a woman and a man. The boy on the right turns to the rear, lifting his left hand and squeezing his fist against the enemies; "We will return one day and you will get our revenge," he says.

In front of this trio there is a car in the mud, horses struggling, a man and two women trying to turn the wheel, and a standing woman on the knees and a kneeling woman offering him a sword. These group figures represent the period before the beginning of the Sakarya Square Battle. To the left of this group, two women and a child sitting on the ground symbolize the people waiting for the Turkish army under the invasion of the enemy. There is a triumphant angel who presents a wreath to the Commander-in-Chief Mustafa Kemal by flying over these people.

At the end of the composition, the woman sitting on the ground symbolizes the "Motherland", the Turkish army winning the young Sakarya Square Battle, and the oak tree symbolize the victory. Relief Ilhan Koman.

Emblem of the Commander-in-Chief

          On the left side of the composition, a group of peasant women, a boy and a horse represented the nation's period of preparation for war. In the next section; Atatürk extended his hand forward and said, "Armies, your first target is the Mediterranean!" by saying the target to the Turkish Army. The angel at the front conveys the order of the Ata to the distant horizons by his pipe. The next section symbolizes the attack of a Turkish soldier with a sword in his hand and a brave soldier shielding the flag in the hands of a fallen erin in the relief representing the sacrifices and heroism of the Turkish army that fulfilled the order of Atatürk. In the foreground, there is the angel of victory in the hands of the Turkish army with the Turkish flag. Relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.

Anıtkabir Command

Military unit of the General Staff responsible for the security of Anıtkabir and the fulfillment of various services.

Anitkabir Center, September 15, 1981 and Law No. 2524 on the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education has been transferred to the Mausoleum Command. command; He performs various duties such as the security, maintenance, administrative affairs and execution of ceremonies of Anıtkabir.

 

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takvim 30/06/2019
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