Information About Ancient City of Ephesus
The ancient city of Ephesus is located on the borders of Selcuk county of İzmir. Excavations in Ephesus Antique continue for more than 100 years. Celcus Library, Slope Houses, Ancient Theater, King Road are the most attractive architectural masterpieces. The city is registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and dates back to 9000 BC. The city is completely made of marble in history. The fact that it was a harbor city at the time enabled rapid progress in trade, culture and art. The magnificent temples, the largest library of the region and the school of philosophy were founded.
First Establishment Period
It is reported that Ephesus first came from Apasas, a city founded by female warriors who were called historically by the name of amazon, and even the name Arzawa (Mother Goddess City). He thought.
Second Establishment Period
In 1000 BC, Androkios, the son of King Kodros of Athens, sailed to the Aegean with his friends for a new city. After passing through lush bordering and sequential islands one after another comes a beautiful koya. Here are islands, hills and lovely valleys.
Andrikios and his friends want to establish a new city here, but it is necessary to obtain the approval of the gods and priests in order to be a city according to their beliefs.
Androkios sends a friend to the holy temple in Delphi. For the city to be built, the oahs are foretelled in the form of "fish will leap, pigs will escape, and you will build a bright city there." One day Androkios and his friends ignite the fish in the bay while they fry the fish around the roof, the fish splashes and the fire around the fire splashed by the fish. The pig that hides amongst the robbers starts to escape. Androkios will go after the pig and kill it and the legend will be realized. Thus, for centuries the foundations of Ephesus, one of the most important cities of the east and the west, are laid.
With the emergence of Christianity, the city became a religious center with St. Paul, one of the most important names of the bible, to be here for a while and give sermons here, and later to visit St. John and the Virgin Mary here. From this date, Ephesus, who has been living in the golden age, often changes hands and starts to instigate an unstable moment. And finally, in 1304, the Turks passed.
Although the prosperity of Ephesus in 1304 was 98 years in Ephesus, in 1402 it took place in the Mongol attacks and the great destruction was hurried. In 1425 the city was an Ottoman conqueror. After this point, Ephesus loses importance with great speed. the port has been filled with alluvial deposits brought by the rivers over the years and has moved away from the sea. The city, which began to lose its commercial power gradually, left behind its glorious days with a great earthquake. Ephesus, a seaside city, is now 5km from the sea.
St. Jean Basilica: Built by the Byzantine Emperor, Great Iustinianus, in the central part of the 6-domed basilica, one of the greatest structures of that period, at the bottom, It is alleged that the tomb of Jean (John) was found, but no findings were found yet. Here, St. There is also a monument erected in the name of Jean. This church which is considered very important for Christians is located in Ayasuluk Castle and there is a treasure house and a baptismal center in the north.
The Upper Agora and the Basilica: It is the site of the official meetings and stock exchange operations built by Emperor Augustus. It's ahead of the Odeion.
Octagon: It is a monumental grave belonging to Cleopatra's sister.
Odeon: Ephesus had two councils. One of these meetings was held and concerts were held at the time of the meetings of the Consultative Assembly. It has a capacity of 1,400 people. For this reason, the building is also called "Bouleterion".
Prytaneion (City Hall): Prytan served as mayor of the city. His greatest task was to make sure that the city fire, which symbolizes the immortality of the city in this building with its thick columns, does not fade. Prytan had undertaken this task on behalf of the goddess Hestia. There were statues of gods and emperors around the hall. The statues of Artemis in Ephesus were found here and later brought to the museum. The buildings next to him were reserved for the official guests of the city.
Marble Street: The street from the library to the theater.
Domitianus Square: A building on the north side of the Domitianus Temple is thought to be the Pollio Fountain and hospital on the east, and the Memmius Monument on the street to the north.
Magnesia Gate (Upper Gate) and East Gymnasium: Ephesus has two entrances. One of them is the Magnesia Gate on the House of the Virgin Mary, which is the eastern gate of the city walls around the city walls. The East Gymnasium is right next to the Magnesia Gate on the Fairy Mountain. Gymnasion is the school of the Roman Age.
Heracles Gate: Built in the Roman end of the day, this gate made Kuretler Caddesi a pedestrian way. The Force God on the front ward has received this name because of Heracles reliefs.
Mazeus Mitridatis (Agora South) Gate: Built before the Library, during the time of Emperor Augustus. From the gate is passed the Trade Agora (Lower Agora).
Monumental Fountain: The challenge city in front of the Odeion is the "State Agora" (Upper Agora). In the middle of it was the temple of the Egyptian gods (Isis). The Monumental Fountain, built by Laecanus Bassus in 80 BC, is located at the southwest corner of the State Agora. From here you can reach the Domitian Square and the Pollio Fountain, the Domitian Temple, the Memmius Monument and the Heracles Gate, which are clustered around this square.
Traianus Fountain: It is one of the two storied monuments on the street. The sphere of the world seen under the feet of the statue of the Emperor Traianus standing in the middle is symbolic.
Heroon: It is a fountain structure made in the name of Androklos, the legendary founder of Ephesus. The front was changed during the Byzantine period.
Slope Houses: In the multi-storey houses built on terraces, the city's wealthy residents lived. These houses, which are the most beautiful of the peristyle house, were in the comfort of modern houses. The walls are covered with marble and frescoes, and the bases are covered with mosaics. All of the houses have a heating system and baths.
Grand Theater: The building at the end of Marble Street is the antique world's largest outdoor theater with a capacity of 24,000 people. The ornate and three-story stage building is completely demolished. The seating steps are three sections. Theater, St. It was a place for Paul's sermons.
Palace Building, Stadium Street, Stadium and Gymnasium: A part of the Byzantine palace and the cadden have been restored. The stadium in the shape of a horse is the place where sports games and competitions are held in the ancient times. Gladiator games were also performed during the late Roman period. The Vedius Gymnasium next to the stadium is the hamam-school complex. The Vedius Gymnasium is located on the northern tip of the city, right next to the Byzantine city walls.
Theater Gymnasium: Both the school and the large courtyard with the bathhouse function are open. Here, marble pieces belonging to the theater are arranged for restoration. Agora: 110 x 110 meters open area in the middle of the surrounding area surrounded by porticos and shops. The agora was the commercial and cultural center of the city. Agora is the starting point of Marble Street.
Hammam and Public Toilet: It is the most important social structure of the Romans. There are cold, warm and hot parts. It was repaired during the Byzantine period. At the same time the public toilet, which is a pool, was also used as a meeting place.
Harbour Street: Harbour Street (Arcadiane Street), with its columns and marble paved streets extending from the Grand Theater to the Antik Liman which is now fully occupied, is the longest street of Ephesus. Monuments were built on the 600-meter-long street during the city's Christian era. The four Apostolic Monument with four columns, each of which is sculpted by one of the apostles, is almost in the middle of the cadden.
Port Gymnasium and Harbor Bath: It is a large group of buildings at the end of Port Avenue. Some of it is dug.
Yuhanna Castle: There are glass and water cisterns in the castle. Ephesus is the highest point in the vicinity. Moreover, the hill where this church is located is the first settlement area of Ephesus Antique City.
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